Sunday, January 23, 2011

ENERGYBOOM II

ENERGYBOOM

Solar

Florida Home to World's First Hybrid Energy Plant

Submitted by eBoom Staff on March 7, 2011

Florida's largest electric utility Florida Power & Light Company (NYSE:NEE-PC) is the owner and operator of the world's first hybrid solar natural gas energy center.

FPL recently announced that the two year construction is complete and that Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center is fully operational. Comprised of 190,000 solar thermal mirrors, which span 500 acres, the hybrid energy center is not unlike a hybrid vehicle that uses the fossil fueled combustion when the electric battery runs out of power.

The first-of-a-kind system combines the new 75 MW solar array with an existing combined-cycle natural gas power plant, reducing the use of natural gas when heat from the sun is available to help produce the steam needed to generate electricity.

Over 30 years FPL expects Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center to reduce the facility's natural gas consumption by 41 billion cubic feet displacing some 2.75 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions and saving the company's 4.5 million customers US$178 million.

The plant will also increase Martin County tax revenue by US$5 million in its first full year of operation.

"Energy security is critical to our national security. FPL's new hybrid solar facility is an important piece of an all-of-the-above energy solution, and I'm glad to see our state is once again leading the way toward a more secure energy future for Florida and America," said U.S. Rep. Tom Rooney (FL-16).

Hybrid systems have future as reliable Energy

Submitted by anumakonda on Mon, 2011-03-07 02:39.

The News," Florida's largest electric utility Florida Power & Light Company (NYSE:NEE-PC) is the owner and operator of the world's first hybrid solar natural gas energy center" is exciting. Hybrid systems are the answer for steady supply of Energy through Renewables.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India.

Emerging

Fossil Fuel-Rich Algeria to Pursue Clean Energy

By Shannon Roxborough on March 9, 2011

Algeria, the gas- and oil-producing northern African nation, plans to invest some US$60 billion on clean energy by 2030 to develop its domestic renewable energy industries and to create policies aimed at driving its progress, according to the country's council of ministers' new energy policy.

The renewable energy program will be funded by tax revenues from the OPEC member's hydrocarbon industry. The first stage of the dual-pronged program would involve evaluating the prospects solar and wind power over the next three years; the second stage would focus on industrializing clean technologies by 2014, creating between 100,000 and 200,000 jobs in the sector. State-owned energy giant Sonelgaz, which is already involved in solar and wind projects, will take the lead in the nation's cleantech endeavors.

Algeria's sun-scorched, largely desert landscape gets an average of average of 2,000 hours of sunlight each year, something that makes it a potential solar hotspot.

Amid escalating violence in Libya and tension in other parts of the Middle East and North Africa, Algeria, which has been no stranger to unrest (including a long history of terrorism-related violence), has been quick to address concerns, pointing to the long-term reliability of its crude and natural gas supplies in the face of turmoil.

BP's (NYSE: BP) recent scrapping of plans to sell its Algerian oil and gas assets as part of a $30 billion divestment program—to raise capital to cover the cost of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill—has been viewed as a vote of confidence for the country.

Algeria hopes to receive 10% of its energy from renewables by 2025.

Comments

I attended an International Conference on Renewable Energy in Algeria. There is good scope to harness Renewable Energy There especially Solar Energy.

Here is an Authoritative analysis on the subject:

CSP Project Developments in Algeria

(Source: iea Solar PACES,Solar Power And Chemical Energy Systems An Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency)

Algeria is by far the largest country of the Mediterranean. Over 70% of its area are South of 20° latitude. According to a study of the German Aerospace Agency, Algeria has the largest long term land potential for concentrating solar thermal power plants.

Meanwhile both the Algerian government and the private sector are aware of Europe's commitment to renewable energy sources, in particular the European Union's aim to have 17% of renewable energy in 2010's energy mix. Internally, Algeria has also taken on its own commitment, with an aim of increasing the solar percentage of its energy mix to 5% by 2010. In January 2003, Algeria and the International Energy Agency agreed on technological cooperation in developing solar power.

Within its policy of climate and environment protection, the Algerian Ministry for Energy and Mines fully supports the objective of the CSP Global Market Initiative (GMI) to facilitate and expedite the building of 5,000 MWe of CSP worldwide over the next ten years. The Government of Algeria sees ideal opportunities of combining Algeria’s richest fossil energy source – the natural gas – with Algeria’s most abundant renewable energy source – the sun – by integrating concentrating solar power into natural gas combined cycles. Incentive premiums for CSP projects are granted within the framework of Algeria’s Decree 04-92 of March 25th, 2004 relating to the costs of diversification of the electricity production. The incentive premiums of this decree shall attract private investors to implement integrated solar combined cycle plants in Algeria. According to the current power expansion planning of the Ministry for Energy and Mines, the capacity targets for CSP power implementation in Algeria are 500 MW of new ISCCS plants until 2010. With these CSP targets and the new Decree 04-92, Algeria has established the GMI commitment on national solar thermal power market implementation.

Envisaged HV Electricity Links between the Maghreb and Europe

But beyond this Algeria is looking for a close partnership with the European Union so that Algerian plants may help deliver the green energy needed for Europe to meet its targets. To bring these plans to reality, and to enhance the participation of the private sector - both local and international - a new company has been created. In July 2002, Sonatrach and Sonelgaz formed a new, renewable energy joint venture company, called New Energy Algeria (NEAL). NEAL will look at development of solar, wind, biomass, and photovoltaic (PV) energy production.

In the frame of the new Algerian law on electricity and public distribution of gas for channeling n ° 02-01 of February 5, 2002 to satisfy the national demand to reach national goals for power using renewable energies. To increase the share of renewable energies to the national power consumption, Abengoa will construct a 150 MW Integrated Solar Combined Cycle power plant.

The plant, located in Hassi R'Mel in northern Algeria, is composed of a conventional combined cycle and a solar field with a nominal thermal power of 95 MWth.

The goal of this project is to integrate the solar thermal technology in a conventional power plant. This combined use reduces the cost and facilitates the deployment of renewable energies in new industrializing countries.

This project is being promoted by Solar Power Plant One (SPP1), an Abener and NEAL joint venture formed for this purpose, and will operate and exploit the plant for a period of 25 years. The Algerian state society, Sonatrach, will buy all of the power produced. The plant will be composed of a 25-MW solar field of parabolic trough technology that will provide complementary thermal energy to a 150‑MW combined cycle.

The reflecting surface of the solar field will be over 180.000 m2. This innovative project will use the heat generated in the same steam turbine that makes use of the waste heat from the gas turbine for electricity. This configuration is doubly effective. On one hand, it minimizes the investment associated with the solar field by sharing components with the combined cycle. It also reduces the CO2 emissions associated with a conventional plant.

The solar field is composed of 216 solar collectors in 54 loops with an inlet heat transfer fluid temperature of 560 ºF and an outlet temperature of 740 ºF.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

Efficiency, Emerging

Study Shows Cloud Computing Carbon Efficient

Submitted by eBoom Staff on March 4, 2011

Over the last ten years Cloud computing has been gaining momentum. The system allows users to use applications, store information and access data remotely without having to download and administer software.

Major IT companies, like Google, Microsoft and Apple, are investing in and moving towards this form of computing, and energy providers like GE are investing in technology to support the power demands these systems will require.

Currently, salesforce.com offers Cloud computing services through a platform called "multitenant" to 92,300 customers. The multitenant design works like an apartment building in that "all customers – no matter what size or where they are located – use the same infrastructure." One of the major advantages to this system is that it requires fewer servers and uses less energy than on-premise systems.

In fact, according to a WSP Environment and Energy study, saleforce.com's system on average is 95 percent more carbon efficient than on-premise systems and 64 percent more efficient than private cloud systems. Last year the company reduced its carbon footprint by 170,900 tons.

"This study proves what I've suspected for years – the use of public cloud computing offers significant energy and environmental advantages," said Jonathan G. Koomey, Ph.D., consulting professor of civil and environmental engineering, Stanford University, who reviewed the analysis. "The cloud's diversity of users and economies of scale make it tough to beat from either an environmental or cost perspective."

Comments

Cloud Computing Can Cut Carbon Emissions

Submitted by anumakonda on Sun, 2011-03-06 00:48.

Good Article. Here is more information on the subject:

Cloud Computing Can Cut Carbon Emissions, Posted by KShilp, November 11th, 2010 ,DAZEINFO Information is useful, if people can find it):


“icrosoft has claimed that the use of cloud computing technology can reduce the carbon emissions by 30 per cent.
According to a recent study commissioned by Microsoft and conducted by solution provider Accenture and WSP Environment and Energy, businesses that run applications in the cloud can reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions by about 30 percent or more compared to running those same applications on their own on-premise infrastructure.
James Harris, Accenture’s director of cloud services, said “The study’s findings confirm what many organisations have already discovered: Cloud computing is more economical and IT resources are used more efficiently when business applications run in a shared environment.”
Interestingly, it contradicts claims made by Greenpeace and a group of Australian researchers who had said that cloud computing does more harm to the environment.
The study conducted by Accenture took into account the carbon footprints of server, networking and storage infrastructures deployed in three different types of organization sizes – 100 users, 1,000 users and 10,000 users.
When a 100 user organization moved to the cloud, the effective carbon footprint reduction was up to 90 percent because of a shared cloud environment and no local servers.
Meanwhile, companies with 1,000 users had savings ranging from 60 percent to 90 percent. And large companies, had savings that was typically around 30 percent to 60 percent on energy consumption and carbon emissions for cloud applications. Microsoft cited one large consumer goods company that reduced carbon emissions by 32 percent by moving 50,000 email users in North America and Europe to the cloud.
Using their own data centers as an example, Microsoft said large data centers benefit from economies of scale and operational efficiencies beyond what enterprise IT departments can achieve. And when it comes to small businesses moving to the cloud, the research revealed that net energy and carbon savings can sometimes hit more than 90 percent.

Microsoft has claimed that the use of cloud computing technology can reduce the carbon emissions by 30 per cent.
According to a recent study commissioned by Microsoft and conducted by solution provider Accenture and WSP Environment and Energy, businesses that run applications in the cloud can reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions by about 30 percent or more compared to running those same applications on their own on-premise infrastructure.
James Harris, Accenture’s director of cloud services, said “The study’s findings confirm what many organisations have already discovered : Cloud computing is more economical and IT resources are used more efficiently when business applications run in a shared environment.”
Interestingly, it contradicts claims made by Greenpeace and a group of Australian researchers who had said that cloud computing does more harm to the environment.
The study conducted by Accenture took into account the carbon footprints of server, networking and storage infrastructures deployed in three different types of organization sizes – 100 users, 1,000 users and 10,000 users.
When a 100 user organization moved to the cloud, the effective carbon footprint reduction was up to 90 percent because of a shared cloud environment and no local servers.
Meanwhile, companies with 1,000 users had savings ranging from 60 percent to 90 percent. And large companies, had savings that was typically around 30 percent to 60 percent on energy consumption and carbon emissions for cloud applications. Microsoft cited one large consumer goods company that reduced carbon emissions by 32 percent by moving 50,000 email users in North America and Europe to the cloud.
Using their own data centers as an example, Microsoft said large data centers benefit from economies of scale and operational efficiencies beyond what enterprise IT departments can achieve. And when it comes to small businesses moving to the cloud, the research revealed that net energy and carbon savings can sometimes hit more than 90 percent”

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

Solar, Finance

Nanogen's Solar Power Plant Fits in a Box

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 21, 2011

Nanogen Power Systems, LLC has developed a technology which distills large-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems so they can fit into a steel cargo container.

CSP technology uses mirrors to focus the sun's rays on a single point to heat liquid which then spins a turbine to create electricity. Traditionally this technology has been employed on large pieces of land and involves many large glass parabolic solar troughs that mechanically track the sun. Nanogen, with the release of its NanoCSP line of modular and portable solar power plants, has made CSP technology an option for remote, small applications.

The NanoCSP system uses patented durable parabolic troughs that are made from molded plastic and do not require mechanical tilting to capture the sun's rays. Using a thermal energy storage tank, the portable solar plant can store enough heated fluid to generate power for up to 16 hours after the sun has set.

Each unit can produce anywhere from 250-kW to 10-MW of power. Originally designed for disaster relief, the entire system fits in a cargo container that can be shipped via sea, barge, truck or rail to locations worldwide and can be up and running within 48 hours.

Read the full story at Business Wire: NANOGEN Power Systems Announces the NanoCSP™ Portable Solar Power Plant

Image Credit: UNC - CFC - USFK via Flickr

Comments

Solar on Wheels!

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-21 22:21.

CSP Units in a container packing is an innovative way of promoting the emerging technology. NANOGEN Power Systems NanoCSP™ line of modular and totally portable Solar Power Plant will be a major breakthrough in CSP on the wheels. I know there is a gas based Energy units on a truck in Russia. CSP is the Future Energy option. Concentrated solar power (CSP) are systems that use lenses or mirrors to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is converted to heat which drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator. CSP should not be confused with photovoltaics, where solar power is directly converted to electricity without the use of steam turbines. The concentration of sunlight onto photovoltaic surfaces, similar to CSP, is known as concentrated photovoltaics (CPV). CSP works best in cloud free environments, as the power drops when the sun's light is occluded, more so than simple photovoltaics. However CSP is often capable of continuing to produce energy for some time after the sun stops shining using built-in thermal capacity Current technology CSP is used to produce renewable heat or cool or electricity (called solar thermoelectricity, usually generated through steam). Concentrated solar technology systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area. The concentrated light is then used as heat or as a heat source for a conventional power plant (solar thermoelectricity). Concentrating technologies exist in four common forms, namely parabolic trough, dish stirlings, concentrating linear fresnel reflector, and solar power tower. Each concentration method is capable of producing high temperatures and correspondingly high thermodynamic efficiencies, but they vary in the way that they track the Sun and focus light. Due to new innovations in the technology, concentrating solar thermal is becoming more and more cost-effective.

A study done by Greenpeace International, the European Solar Thermal Electricity Association, and the International Energy Agency's SolarPACES group investigated the potential and future of concentrated solar power. The study found that concentrated solar power could account for up to 25% of the world's energy needs by 2050. The increase in investment would be from 2 billion euros worldwide to 92.5 billion euros in that time period. Spain is the leader in concentrated solar power technology, with more than 50 projects approved by the government in the works. Also, it exports its technology, further increasing the technology's stake in energy worldwide. Because of the nature of the technology needing a desert like area, experts predicted the biggest growth in places like Africa, Mexico, the southwest United States. The study examined three different outcomes for this technology: no increases in CSP technology, investment continuing as it has been in Spain and the US, and finally the true potential of CSP without any barriers on its growth. The findings of the third part are shown in the table below: Time Investment Capacity 2015 21 billion euros a year 420 megawatts 2050 174 billion euros a year 1500 gigawatts. Finally, the study acknowledged how technology for CSP was improving and how this would result in a drastic price decrease by 2050. It predicted a drop from the current range of .23 to .15 euros per kilowatthour, down to .14 to .10 euros a kilowatthour. Recently the EU has begun to look into developing a €400 billion ($774 billion) solar power plant based in the Sahara region using CSP technology known as Desertec. It is part of a wider plan to create "a new carbon-free network linking Europe, the Middle East and North Africa". The plan is backed mainly by German industrialists and predicts production of 15% of Europe's power by 2050. Morocco is a major partner in Desertec and as it has barely 1% of the electricity consumption of the EU, it will produce more than enough energy for the entire country with a large energy surplus to deliver to Europe. Other organizations expect CSP to cost $0.06(US)/kWh by 2015 due to efficiency improvements and mass production of equipment. That would make CSP as cheap as conventional power. Investors such as venture capitalist Vinod Khosla expect CSP to continuously reduce costs and actually be cheaper than coal power after 2015”(Source: Wikipedia).

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

ENERGYBOOM

Finance, Transportation

China's 'New Energy' Vehicle Goals Dwarf the U.S.

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 21, 2011

President Obama has set a goal for America to have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015. China, on the other hand, has set a target to put one million electric cars on its roads annually by 2015.

The discrepancy in the two targets highlights the growing division between the two countries' cleantech development. In the competition to dominate the emerging low-carbon economy, China is swiftly gaining the upper-hand on the United States.

According to The Guardian newspaper, China's new plan to make "new energy" vehicles -- hybrid and electric -- a national priority will soon be published.

The country's grandiose new energy transportation goals include investing 100 billion yuan (US$15.2 billion) in electric and hybrid vehicles over the next ten years in order for them to secure a larger fraction of the 100 million vehicles it plans to manufacture annually by 2020. According to the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, the country produced over 18 million automobiles in 2010.

Image credit: BYD Auto

Comments

Good tussle on EVs between US and China

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-21 21:35.

It was in US the initial interest in Electric Vehicles created. But as it happens, China is looking at avenues to march ahead. S long as China maintains standards, they can capture sizeable EV market in the world as Chinese believe in less cost and bulk produce.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Emerging

Coal May Fuel Renewable Energy in India

By Shannon Roxborough on February 23, 2011

In an unlikely twist, notoriously dirty coal could help advance clean energy projects in India. The Indian government is mulling a plan to use taxes it will collect this year from coal producers to pay for new electricity-transmission lines needed to distribute power from renewable projects like solar power plants and wind farms -- the U.S., whose wind power production has outpaced transmission line construction, is also struggling to move clean power.

Last summer, increasingly climate-conscious India began charging companies for pollution with a tax on coal, peat and lignite, a move that is expected to raise some $555 million in the first year to fund sustainable energy projects. The tax on coal, which fires more than half of the nation's electricity generation, is 50 rupees (about US$1.10) per metric ton produced.

A portion of the coal fund may also be used to provide states lacking solar and wind assets with financial incentives to set higher renewable targets for themselves. Currently, state regulators require major utilities and large industrial operations that produce their own power to derive between 0.8% and 14% of their energy from clean energy sources.

The absence of a strong national grid, due largely to inadequate infrastructure (particularly in poverty-stricken rural areas), has hampered the development of cleantech projects in the South Asian nation and could potentially freeze related investments in certain regions at some point this year, say analysts.

According to the International Energy Agency, only one in three Indians in connected to the nationwide electrical network, a problem that threatens economic and industrial expansion in Asia's second-fastest growing major economy.

Comments

Coal is still preferred Energy Producer

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Wed, 2011-02-23 03:31.

That is why I have been warning the protagonists of Renewable Energy that Renewables can only play a supplementary role to conventional energy like coal, petroleum, gas etc., but can never replace them.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Emerging

Finance, Wind

United States: Wind Developers Waiting on New Transmission Lines

By Joseph Baker on February 21, 2011

It is no secret that a huge hurdle impeding the growth of clean, renewable energy is building a smart power grid and, perhaps more importantly, new transmission lines. In particular, the proliferation of wind power in the United States this decade is at a tipping point. A major problem that needs to be addressed is transferring the energy from wind farms to the high density cities.

The vision of oil tycoon T. Boone Pickens, who purchased 687 wind turbines to develop a major wind farm in Texas, came to a screeching halt because there were not the transmission lines to support the project.

In 2011, according to RW Towt & Associates, there is "new life being breathed" into the wind industry. With new high voltage lines under construction and coming on-line, wind developers with "shovel ready" projects could bring hundreds of megawatts in the coming years.

In California, Southern California Edison (NYSE: EIX) is working on the second phase (segments 4-11) of transmission lines from the wind rich Tehachapi Pass to Los Angeles. The first phase (segments 1-3), which was completed in 2009, has allowed for a major expansion of what will be the United States' largest wind farm in Kern County California.

Further east, ITC Holdings (NYSE:ITC) is working on building a network of transmission lines in the midwest called the Green Power Express which will most notably connect North Dakota to Chicago.

Finally, in the south, the Texas Public Utility Commission is scrambling to complete US$5 billion in upgrades to its system to allow developers to further tap the nation's largest wind source, the Texas Panhandle.

The progress of transmission line projects such as these, as well as the future development of the smart grid, will be key to the growth of the United States' wind power market.

Comments

Grid for evacuation of Wind power should be planned well

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-21 08:00.

Grid for evacuating the Wind power is a problem in other countries like China and India too unless planning for wind power generation and evacuation facilities are matched.

While having an estimated production target of 4,000-5,000 MW in wind power sector by 2015, there is a strong need to expand grid for evacuating the power generated.

Currently, India, which ranks fifth in wind power generation, has an installed capacity of 12,100 MW and accounts to nearly 6 per cent of India’s total installed power capacity. ‘‘There’s an utmost need to expand the existing infrastructure for evacuating the wind power that will be generated, which otherwise may lead to serious transmission problem,’’ Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturing Association Chairman D.V. Giri feels..

There is impact of Reactive Power in Power Evacuation from Wind turbines. Here is a good analysis on this in Indian context:

“It is found that the problems associated with power evacuation from wind farms entirely depends on the network topology. A Smaller generating system (i.e. for 2.25MW) can sustain and function stably with a grid capacity of 25MVA. To keep the system in stable, the grid capacity has to be increased doubly (i.e. 50 MVA). It is found that Index based methods for anti-islanding doesn’t ensure prevention

from islanding as Index threshold could change due to change in system load, generation and configuration.

The Voltage based Anti-Islanding technique fails to detect Islanding if the transfer of reactive power from grid to wind farm is kept minimum. The Islanding of single wind turbine has very little impact on nearby wind turbines and grid if it is detected in the given time. The impact of three phase fault power evacuation from wind turbines is found that the problems associated with power evacuation from wind farms entirely depends on the network topology. When the capacity of the Wind farm is doubled, system events results in unstable operation of the network. Instability can be seen from the changed operation condition after the fault is cleared at 100ms. The impact is minimized by increasing the capacity of the grid to 50 MVA.( Source: Impact of Reactive Power in Power Evacuation from Wind Turbines, Asish Ranjan1, S. Prabhakar Karthikeyan1, Ankur Ahuja,1 K. Palanisamy1, I. Jacob Raglend2, D. P. Kothari3, J. Electromagnetic Analysis & Applications, 2009, 1: 15-23 Published Online March 2009 in SciRes (www.SciRP.org/journal/jemaa)”.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

Emerging, Finance

United States: Commercial-Scale Carbon Capture Full Steam Ahead

By Joseph Baker on February 18, 2011

Last year, U.S. President Obama proclaimed that clean coal is the bridge his country needed to gap the time it would take renewable energy to supply enough power to meet U.S. energy demand.

Clean coal is a process of capturing carbon dioxide emitted from coal and other fossil fuel fired plants, condensing it, and then injecting it into underground formations. Despite being met with much resistance and controversy, carbon capture and storage research and development is increasingly receiving both governmental and private financial backing.

The U.S. Department of Energy has committed to fund 50 percent (up to US$334 million) of the nation's first commercial-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system. The project, which is being developed by American Electric Power (NYSE: AEP) and its partner Alstom for AEP's Mountaineer coal-fueled plant New Have, West Virginia, has just received another funding partner: the Global CCS Institute.

The Global CCS Institute, which was recently formed by the Australian government, has pledged US$4 million for the project's preliminary engineering and characterization. Projected to be complete in 2015 the CCS at the Mountaineer plant will capture 90 percent of CO2 from 253 megawatts of the plant's 1,300 megawatt capacity equating to some 1.5 million tons a year. The compressed CO2 will be deposited 1.5 miles below the earth's surface.

This project could serve as a model for not only AEP, which is one of the United States' largest electric utilities boasting a customer base of 5 million in 11 states, but for the entire country.

"We appreciate the support we are receiving from the Global CCS Institute. Having them involved clearly demonstrates that commercialization of carbon capture and storage technology is an essential component of a successful global climate strategy," said Michael G. Morris, AEP chairman and chief executive officer.

Going further, Morris said, "If we are going to address climate change in any meaningful way, we have to develop technologies that can be deployed worldwide to cut emissions from coal-fueled electricity generation, which continues to supply a large part of our world's energy needs."

Comments

Wise move

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-21 08:14.

Clean coal is the bridge US needed to gap the time it would take renewable energy to supply enough power to meet energy demand as proclaimed by President Barack Obama. I hope other countries adopt this.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India.

Air Force Scientists Collect 99 Percent of Wave Energy

By Jeanne Roberts on February 14, 2011


A wave energy converter generates power in a tank at the AIr Force Academy Jan. 27, 2010. The converter was designed by Department of Astronautics researchers Dr. Stefan Siegel and Jurgen Seidel. (U.S. Air Force photo/Rachel Boettcher)

As a source of energy, the ocean is even better than the sun. It is capable of delivering energy 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. But the difficulty of capturing wave energy in significant amounts – faced with the sea’s pitiless environment – has plagued scientists for a long time.

Now, scientists and undergraduates at the U.S. Air Force Academy base in Colorado Springs have demonstrated that submerged wave energy converters can harness up to 99 percent of the kinetic energy inherent in an ocean wave.

The actual process – using a cyclodial wave energy conversion device – was developed by project leader/Professor Dr. Stefan Siegel, who has a Ph.D. in Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering from the University of Arizona. The Air Force Academy is one of the few institutions gifted with both huge computational and “real world” research capabilities. More important, both labs are in the same building.

Siegel’s teammates are USAF students who are majoring in aeronautical engineering and are charged with real-world experimental modeling to validate computational models. For the team, the “real world” is actually a water tank containing a miniaturized (1:300) model of what is the world’s first free-floating, fully submerged wave energy converter.

Wave power is not new. The oil crisis of 1973 inspired Edinburgh University Professor Stephen H. Salter to look at marine energy. In 1974 he invented the Salter’s Duck (known as the Edinburgh Duck), a wave machine that captured 90 percent of a wave’s kinetic energy, yielding an 81-percent efficiency rating.

Scotland’s Pelamis Wave Power machine was UK grid-tied in 2004. And in 2009, Ocean Power Technologies installed a grid-tied wave energy device at the U.S. Marine Corps Base in Hawaii, as well as another in Reedsport, Oregon in 2010.

Dr. Siegel’s experiment, started in the fall of 2008 and tweaked until it reached current efficiencies, is only a model, but he remains convinced that scaling up the model will still result in equally surprising efficiencies, with the converter nicely protected from the ocean’s wrath by being installed on a free-floating submerged platform, well below the destructive power of surface waves.

Funding for Dr. Salter’s project was provided by the National Science Foundation (through September of 2011), with an additional US$400,000 of federal funding -- presumably from the U.S. Department of Energy -- to follow, taking the model from 1:300 to 1:10, and taking the device itself from a Technology Readiness Level of three to four. Nine is a commercially deployable model.

Comments

Wave Energy is an Efficient Form of Energy

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-14 05:15.

Scientists and undergraduates at the U.S. Air Force Academy base in Colorado Springs demonstration that submerged wave energy converters can harness up to 99 percent of the kinetic energy inherent in an ocean wave is a major breakthrough in harnessing wave energy.

Wave energy is a concentrated form of solar energy. Winds generated by the differential heating of the earth pass over open bodies of water, transferring some of their energy to the water in the form of waves. This energy transfer involves concentration of the energy involved: the initial solar power level of about 100W/m2 is concentrated to an average wave power level of 70kW per metre of crest length. This figure rises to an average of 170kW/metre of crest length during the winter, and to more than 1MW/metre of crest length during storms.

Waves are generated by wind passing over the surface of the sea. As long as the waves propagate slower than the wind speed just above the waves, there is an energy transfer from the wind to the waves. Both air pressure differences between the upwind and the lee side of a wave crest, as well as friction on the water surface by the wind, making the water to go into the shear stress causes the growth of the waves.

Wave height is determined by wind speed, the duration of time the wind has been blowing, fetch (the distance over which the wind excites the waves) and by the depth and topography of the seafloor (which can focus or disperse the energy of the waves). A given wind speed has a matching practical limit over which time or distance will not produce larger waves. When this limit has been reached the sea is said to be "fully developed".

In general, larger waves are more powerful but wave power is also determined by wave speed, wavelength, and water density.

Oscillatory motion is highest at the surface and diminishes exponentially with depth. However, for standing waves (clapotis) near a reflecting coast, wave energy is also present as pressure oscillations at great depth, producing microseisms. These pressure fluctuations at greater depth are too small to be interesting from the point of view of wave power.

Wave energy converters extract and convert this energy into a useful form. The conversion usually makes use of either mechanical motion or fluid pressure, and there are numerous techniques for achieving it, eg oscillating water/air columns, hinged rafts, gyroscopic/hydraulic devices. The mechanical energy is then converted to electrical power using a generator. Direct drive generators, in which the motion of the wave is converted directly to electrical power, are now being considered.

Wave energy converters can be deployed either on the shoreline or in the deeper waters offshore. The shoreline resource potential is much smaller than the offshore potential. This is because there are few specific sites that meet the requirements for useful energy capture. East-facing sites in the UK are unsuitable because of the limited energy associated with easterly winds, while bottom friction reduces power levels where the water depth is less than 80 metres. As a result, the inshore resource is only one-quarter or less of the deepwater resource, although this reduction can be offset in some locations, where wave refraction focuses and concentrates wave energy, creating locally attractive shoreline sites.

Alongside growing interest in the UK, USA, and Portugal, countries such as Canada, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and other nations are also expressing support for ocean energy development.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP),,India

ENERGYBOOM

Policy, Solar

U.S. Aims for $1 per Watt Solar Power to Compete with Fossil Fuels

By Terry McDonald on February 7, 2011

Solar innovation at the heart of SunShot program.

U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu Friday announced that $27 million will be awarded to nine new projects as part of the government’s $200 million per year “SunShot” initiative to bring the total costs of utility scale solar energy systems down about 75 percent -- to roughly $1 a watt - by 2020.

DoE estimates that if the installed costs for solar energy systems drop to $1 per watt — equivalent to a cost of 5-6 cents per kilowatt hour — solar without subsidies would be competitive with the wholesale rate of electricity nearly everywhere in the U.S.

SunShot aims to restore the country’s once-dominant position in the global market for solar photovoltaics, which has dwindled from 43 percent in 1995 to only six percent today.

The SunShot initiative will continue to accelerate and advance the DoE's existing research efforts by refocusing its solar energy programs — valued at approximately $200 million per year — to support a targeted roadmap to meet the SunShot goal by the end of the decade.

"These efforts will boost our economic competitiveness, rebuild our manufacturing industry and help reach the President's goal of doubling our clean energy in the next 25 years," Chu said.

Chu said the SunShot program builds on the legacy of President Kennedy's 1960s "moon shot" goal, which laid out a plan to regain the country's lead in the space race and land a man on the moon.

Photo credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/Roy Kaltschmidt

Comments

US DoE “SunShot” initiative is laudable

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-14 05:32.

US DoE innovative approach on"SunShot" will be a boon for Renewables ,as such a move will bring Renewables to compete with fossil fuels in generating energy. The outcome from these efforts will certainly benefit other countries also to promote Renewables on a large scale.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India.

ENERGYBOOM

Solar

Princeton's Impressive New Solar Plans: A Model for Others to Follow

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 4, 2011

Princeton University not only plans to be home to one of the largest solar installations on any U.S. college campus by 2012, but it also aims to create a successful renewable energy business model for other schools to follow.

The 5.3-megawatt solar system will be composed of 16,500 photovoltaic panels, which will be placed across 27 acres of university property. Princeton expects the solar farm to generate enough energy to power 5.5% of its energy needs, while also reducing energy costs by 8%.

The Ivy League school plans to finance the project through innovative means. It will pay for the installation costs through financial incentives from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, as well as by selling the Solar Renewable Energy Credits it will receive from the state of New Jersey. The state will issue one credit for every 1,000 kilowatt-hours produced. Princeton will then sell those credits to a utility.

Shana Weber, the University's sustainability manager, said the school is setting an example for other institutions across the country: "In some ways what is more exciting than the solar panels themselves is the financial model that we worked out as an institution. The financial model actually has the more far reaching implications in terms of making this technology more accessible to nonprofit organizations."

Comments

Excellent initiative by Princeton University

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-14 05:49.

The major initiative to install large PV systems in the campus by Princeton University is indeed serve as impetus for other Institutes in and outside US to follow suite.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

ENERGYBOOM

Finance, Policy, Wind

Maryland Governor Looking to Mandate the Purchase of Offshore Wind Energy

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 10, 2011

Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley is preparing to propose a new bill which would establish a market for the development of the state's offshore wind market by requiring utilities to sigh multi-decade contracts to purchase wind energy.

A draft of the bill, obtained by the Associated Press, shows the Governor is looking to mandate the state's four utilities to sign 20-year, fixed rate, power purchase agreements. According to Malcolm Woolf, director of the Maryland Energy Administration, this initiative will increase residents' energy bills by $1.60 per month.

Under the Governor's proposal, the utilities would agree to buy between 400 and 600 megawatts of offshore power. If passed, this initiative would jump start a sleeping cleantech industry -- wind energy generated in the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf.

The wind farms would take years to develop, but Woolf says if the bill passes and all goes well, "we're hoping to have wind turbines spinning in 2016."

Comments

A Progressive Measure to promote offshore wind farms

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-14 05:58.

It is a progressive measure to promote offshore wind farms which closely follows feed in tariffs which were so successful for Renewable Energy in countries like Germany, Spain etc.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

ENERGYBOOM

Finance, Policy

Obama's 2012 Budget Bolsters Support For Clean Energy

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 14, 2011

U.S. President Barack Obama has asked congress to approve a 2012 budget that provides the Department of Energy (DOE) with US$29.5 billion.

Standing behind his State Of the Union address, the President's proposed budget supports the research, development and deployment of clean energy.

Along with setting aside US$457 million for solar energy, US$341 million for biofuels and biomass and $102 million geothermal energy, the budget provides US$580 million for advanced technology vehicle research. The Office of Science would receive US$5.4 billion for long term clean energy research. To support new nuclear energy technologies the administration has asked for US$853 million.

In his State of the Union Obama address President Obama proclaimed, "We need to get behind this innovation. And to help pay for it, I'm asking Congress to eliminate the billions in taxpayer dollars we currently give to oil companies." Obama stood behind these words as well. The proposed budget seeks to eliminate oil and gas subsidies that currently amount to nearly US$4 billion a year.

Comments

Big budget for Clean Energy - Thanks President Barack Obama

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Tue, 2011-02-15 06:43

Huge budget for research, development and deployment of clean energy in US will help advancement of Clean Energy in leaps and bounds. It shows President Barack Obama's commitment to foster the growth of Clean Energy,

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India.

ENERGYBOOM

Policy

Harvard Study Estimates Coal Power Has $300 to $500 Billion in Hidden Costs

By Nathanael Baker on February 17, 2011

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A new study from Harvard University has found that when the entire life-cycle of coal is considered -- extraction, transport, processing, and combustion -- it poses significant public health and environment hazards. Cumulatively, the study estimates these hazards cost the American people roughly US$300 to US$500 billion dollars annually.

Entitled, "Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal," the scientific article is set to be published next month in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The research was headed by Dr. Paul Epstein, associate director of the Center for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School. Epstein employed the help of nine other public health and environment experts to conduct the analysis.

As a result of their findings, this panel of experts, conservatively estimates that when all the "externalities" around coal-fired power are weighed, the price of production doubles and triples. This hike, they say, makes "wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive."

Beyond the technological problems of generating capacity and intermittent power production, the biggest argument over large-scale development and implementation of renewable energy sources has been price. Renewables are still considered the expensive, luxury item compared to oil, coal, and natural gas production.

However, this argument is beginning to lose weight. Bloomberg New Energy Finance recently reported that falling prices for wind turbines reduced the cost of generating wind energy in the world's best regions to $69 per megawatt-hour last year. This price was almost on par with the $67 per megawatt-hour cost for coal-fired power.

Epstein's study shines a new, more holistic light on the price debate, though. Coal is the world's number one source of electricity. According to the study, coal-fired power represented 40% of all global electricity production in 2005. The study also notes this source of power is packaged with another large partner -- carbon dioxide emissions. In 2005, coal accounted for 41% of worldwide carbon emissions. It is estimated that by 2030 the demand for coal will double.

Widely considered a source of cheap energy in the United States, the study finds that accounting for all of the ancillary costs associated with coal-fired power would add an additional 18 cents per kilowatt-hour onto American energy bills. Currently, the average price of residential electricity in the United States is 12 cents per kilowatt-hour.

The study's authors contend these findings still do not tell the full story.

These figures do not represent the full societal and environmental burden of coal. In quantifying the damages, we have omitted the impacts of toxic chemicals and heavy metals on ecological systems and diverse plants and animals; some ill-health endpoints (morbidity) aside from mortality related to air pollutants released through coal combustion that are still not captured; the direct risks and hazards posed by sludge, slurry, and CCW impoundments; the full contributions of nitrogen deposition to eutrophication of fresh and coastal sea water; the prolonged impacts of acid rain and acid mine drainage; many of the long-term impacts on the physical and mental health of those living in coal-field regions and nearby MTR sites; some of the health impacts and climate forcing due to increased tropospheric ozone formation; and the full assessment of impacts due to an increasingly unstable climate.

In response to the study, Lisa Camooso Miller, a spokeswoman for the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity -- the industry's trade association -- told Reuters, "The Epstein article ignores the substantial benefits of coal in maintaining lower energy prices for American families and businesses. Lower energy prices are linked to a higher standard of living."

Epstein contends quite the opposite, stating the economic burden of the health and environmental hazards of coal-fired electricity are carried by American families. "The public cost is far greater than the cost of the coal itself. The impacts of this industry go way beyond just lighting our lights. This is not borne by the coal industry, this is borne by us, in our taxes."

Comments

Good News for Renewable Energy.

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2011-02-17 08:48.

There has been long debate on hidden costs on coal power generation (mainly subsidies). Now that a study has been made no less than Harvard University, I expect more and more activity in Renewable Energy both in Developed and developing counties.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Finance, Wind

Wind Power: Racing To Get Bigger

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 16, 2011

In a world market that is consumed with "smaller and faster" it seems when it comes to wind power companies are still racing towards the "bigger is better" business model.

For wind turbine producers this means creating turbines with the largest generating capacity on the market. Last week, world-leading wind turbine developer Vestas Wind Systems A/S (VWDRY.PK) announced it would unveil its biggest turbine, a 6 MW offshore wind turbine, in March 2011.

Not to be out done, Sinovel Wind Group Co., China's number one wind power manufacturer, said that its 6 MW turbine is due to be released in June. This news comes just months after Sinovel launched a 5 MW model.

However, with companies like Germany's Enercon, who late last month installed a 7.5 MW wind energy generator, both Sinovel and Vestas are playing catch up. Sinovel vice-general manager told the China Daily that his company is currently developing a 10 MW wind turbine.

Image Credit: Jorge Lascar via Flickr.

Now Big is Bountiful

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2011-02-17 09:02.

Once 'Small is beautiful' and now 'Big is bountiful'.

Infact Big wind turbines are not of recent origin. I think there must be a limit to the size of the Wind Turbine. In the past NASA has designed and developed MOD -A and MOD - B large Wind turbines and Growian in Germany. They were not successful as the technology was much ahead of the times. However the oldest large wind turbine has been Tvind Windmill in Denmark which has been successfully running. I saw it in 1999. It was a wonderful feat by students and teachers of Tvind Schools as an answer to do away with Nuclear power. There is a lift inside which takes tourists to the top. Incidentally it is a Downwind machine (where the wind strikes the tower first and then the blades (now a days we have only upwind machines which operate in reverse).

The bigger the machine it should be fool proof. Any small down time costs heavily.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

ENERGYBOOM

The Netherlands Cuts Renewable Energy Subsidies, Looks to Nuclear Power

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 11, 2011

In an incredible change of face, The Netherlands is planning to slash its renewable energy targets as well as reduce its solar and wind subsidies.

According to the Financial Times Deutschland, the government states the subsidies are unaffordable. The plan is for the subsidies to be cut from €4 billion annually, to €1.5 billion.

Previously a huge proponent of renewable energy development, Holland becomes the first European Union country to abandon the mandated target of producing 20% of its domestic power from renewable sources by 2020.

Beyond reducing its renewable energy funding, the country's morphing energy policy looks as though it will include more nuclear power in the future. Currently, home to one nuclear power plant, the government has recently eliminated its opposition to nuclear energy, and given its approval for the first new nuclear power plant in almost 40 years.

Read the full story at The Register: Holland slashes carbon targets, shuns wind for nuclear

Comments

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2011-02-13 01:59.

The moment we think of Netherlands, the first thing that comes to mind is the age-old Dutch windmills and every shop in Netherlands selling souvenirs has Dutch Windmill.

It is unfortunate when countries in Europe like Denmark, Italy voted against nuclear, Netherlands is going the other way.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

ENERGY
BOOM

Wind

United Kingdom: Government Approves 230 MW Offshore Wind Farm

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 9, 2011

Over the past few months the United Kingdom's Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and its Secretary Chris Huhne have come under fire from the renewable energy sector. With questions and confusion surrounding the newly adopted feed-in tariff scheme, coupled with demands from Scotland that renewable energy funds it was promised have not been dispersed and that renewable energy development is progressing "unacceptably slow," Mr. Huhne has been busy putting out fires.

With the announcement that the DECC has approved energy company E.ON UK to build a 230MW offshore wind farm, Mr. Huhne has progress to report.

According to the Independent, the 77 turbine Humber Gateway offshore wind project is the first offshore wind farm to be approved by the government since 2008. When complete the wind farm will produce enough electricity to power 150,000 homes.

“Offshore wind not only provides clean, green, secure energy, the investment that comes with it is great for the UK economy too," said Secretary Huhne

Comments

UK leader in Offshore Wind Farms

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2011-02-10 02:38.

Already UK is the leader in the World in Offshore Wind Farms.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India
ENERGYBOOM

Emerging

Tocardo Making Waves

Submitted by eBoom Staff on February 4, 2011

Based in the Netherlands, Tocardo BV International has been working towards making wave power a reality for nearly 11 years.

Three years ago, the company installed and commissioned a uni-directional turbine which has since been feeding clean, renewable energy to the power grid.

Tocardo's technology uses wave currents to turn its turbines which then produces electricity. The uni-direction turbines, which can generate up to 500 kW each -- depending on model and application -- can be submerged in both rivers and canals.

With its announcement of successfully installing and commissioning its first bi-directional turbine at its testing facility in Den Oever, Tocardo now has an ocean model. This development represents a big step towards commercial scale application of the technology. The company expects its first full-scale commercial installations of the bi-directional turbines later this year.

“We are proud of the successful development and deployment of Tocardo’s new technology. It expands the company’s commercial proposition, drastically increases the potential revenue stream in 2011 and is a well planned and important step in our way forward towards larger offshore turbines. Furthermore it strengthens the joint market proposition Tocardo offers with Strukton through the project development entity Tidal Power Projects (TPP)," said Tocardo CEO, Hans van Breugal.

Image Credit: Tocardo

Comments

Excellent Technology to harness Wave Energy

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-07 20:47.

Excellent. Uni-directional turbine is indeed a break through in harnessing Wave Technology .

In India also major developments are taking place in harnessing Tidal Energy.
India will soon be home to Asia's first tidal power project. The government has approved a 50-megawatt commercial tidal power plant in the Gulf of Kutch.

The plant will be constructed by Atlantis Resources Corporation and Gujarat Power Corporation. Project development will begin this year, with the plant expected to be operational by 2013.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

ENERGYBOOM

Wind

Wind Power Cost Closer to Coal-Fired Plants

By Terry McDonald on February 7, 2011

Wind turbine prices last year fell below 1 million euros ($1.4 million) a megawatt for the first time since 2005, London-based analyst Bloomberg New Energy Finance reported today.

These turbine prices also helped push the cost of generating wind power in the best wind regions to $69 a megawatt-hour, which compares with $67 for coal-fired power plants and $56 for combined cycle plants using gas.

Turbine prices are down from 1.06 million euros for contracts signed in 2009 and a peak of 1.21 million euros in 2007 and 2008. The price decline was caused by delays in project financing, which translated into over-capacity in several markets, such as the U.S. and Spain.

All manufacturers showed “aggressive pricing,” with some contracts dipping below 900,000 euros a megawatt. The U.S. was the lowest-priced market, with an average charge of 930,000 euros per megawatt.

New wind power installations fell seven percent worldwide last year.

Photo credit: Suzlon

Comments

Yes. Wind will be cost competitive with coal

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Mon, 2011-02-07 19:50.

Yes. With improved turbine design,better selection methods on windy sites, wind energy is becoming cost competitive with coal.

Here is an excellent analysis on the subject :

WIND POWER COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL POWER GENERATION(Source : Wind Energy THE FACTS)

‘The cost of conventionally-generated power is compared with the cost of wind-generated power. To obtain a comparable picture, calculations for conventional technologies are prepared utilising the Recabs-model, which was developed in the IEA Implementing Agreement on Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA, 2008). The cost of conventional electricity production in general is determined by four components:

· Fuel cost;

· Cost of CO2 emissions (as given by the European Trading System for CO2, ETS);

· Operation and maintenance (O&M) costs; and

· Capital cost, including planning and site work.

Fuel prices are given by the international markets and, in the reference case, are assumed to develop according to the IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2007, (IEA, 2007c), which rather conservatively assumes a crude oil price of $63/barrel in 2007, gradually declining to $59/barrel in 2010 (constant terms). Oil prices reached a high of $147/barrel in July 2008. As is normally observed, natural gas prices are assumed to follow the crude oil price (basic assumptions on other fuel prices: coal 1.6 €/GJ and natural gas 6.05 €/GJ). As mentioned, the price of CO2 is determined by the EU ETS market; at present the price of CO2 is around 25 €/t.

Here, calculations are carried out for two state-of-the-art conventional plants: a coal-fired power plant and a combined cycle natural gas combined heat and power plant, based on the following assumptions:

· Plants are commercially available for commissioning by the year 2010;

· Costs are levelised using a 7.5 per cent real discount rate and a 40-year lifetime.(National assumptions on plant lifetime might be shorter, but calculations were adjusted to 40 years);

· Load factor is 75 per cent; and

· Calculations are carried out in constant 2006-€.

When conventional power is replaced by wind-generated electricity, the costs avoided depend on the degree to which wind power substitutes for each of the four components. It is generally accepted that implementing wind power avoids the full fuel and CO2 costs, as well as a considerable portion of the O&M costs of the displaced conventional power plant. The level of avoided capital costs depends on the extent to which wind power capacity can displace investments in new conventional power plants, and thus is directly tied to how wind power plants are integrated into the power system.

Studies of the Nordic power market, NordPool, show that the cost of integrating variable wind power is, on average, approximately 0.3-0.4 c€/kWh of wind power generated at the present level of wind power capacity (mainly Denmark) and at the existing transmission and market conditions. These costs are completely in line with experiences in other countries. Integration costs are expected to increase with higher levels of wind power penetration.

This case is based on the World Energy Outlook assumptions on fuel prices, including a crude oil price of $59/barrel in 2010. At present (September 2008), the crude oil price is $120/barrel. Although this oil price combined with a lower exchange rate for US$, the present price of oil is significantly higher than the forecast IEA oil price for 2010.

The competitiveness of wind-generated power increases significantly: costs at the inland site become lower than generation costs for the natural gas plant and only around 10 per cent more expensive than the coal-fired plant. At coastal sites, wind power produces the cheapest electricity.

Finally, as discussed in Awerbuch (2003), the uncertainties related to future fossil fuel prices mentioned imply a considerable risk for future generation costs of conventional plants. Conversely, the costs per kWh generated by wind power are almost constant over the lifetime of the turbine, following its installation. Thus, although wind power might currently be more expensive per kWh, it may account for a significant share in the utilities’ portfolio of power plants, since it hedges against unexpected rises in prices of fossil fuels in the future. The consistent nature of wind power costs justifies a relatively higher cost compared to the uncertain risky future costs of conventional power ‘.

Latest research on Wind Turbines:

Here is news on latest advances in wind turbine technology.

“New Ideas Enhance Efficiency of Wind Turbines

ScienceDaily (Dec. 22, 2010) — One issue confronting the efficiency of wind as a promising renewable energy source is the wind itself -- specifically, its changeability. While the aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine is best under steady wind flow, the efficiency of the blades degrades when exposed to conditions such as wind gusts, turbulent flow, upstream turbine wakes and wind shear

“Now, a new type of air-flow technology may soon increase the efficiency of large wind turbines under many different wind conditions.

Researchers from Syracuse University's L.C. Smith College of Engineering and Computer Science (LCS) are testing new intelligent-systems-based active flow control methods with support from the U.S. Department of Energy through the University of Minnesota Wind Energy Consortium. The approach estimates the flow conditions over the blade surfaces from surface measurements, and then uses this information in an intelligent controller to implement real-time actuation on the blades to control the airflow and increase the overall efficiency of the wind turbine system. The work may also reduce excessive noise and vibration due to flow separation”.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

Wind Energy Expert

E-mail: Anumakonda.jagadeesh@gmail.com

ENERGYBOOM

Efficiency, Finance

President Obama Annouces Better Buildings Initiative

By Emily Murgatroyd on February 3, 2011

Government financing and new tax incentives are part of a new plan that President Obama announced today to make buildings more energy efficient. The plan is seen as a way to encourage job growth in addition to reducing energy costs.

The ‘Better Building Initiative, according to a statement released by the White House, will save US businesses $40 billion a year; an achievement made possible through improving building energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. The President has expressed that such measures will help business expand in addition to creating more jobs across the nation. For a country still dealing with the largest economic crisis since the depression, this is encouraging news.

According to the World Business Council For Sustainable Development, buildings command a huge volume of energy, accounting for 25-40% of final energy demand. This could be dramatically decreased by over 700 million tons simply by improving building and appliance efficiency.

The President has been focused on innovation as of late. He made reference to America’s Sputnik moment in his State of the Union address last week and today he declared that “winning the future is going to require government and business to work together and foster the good ideas that become great inventions.”

Comment

Energy Efficient Buildings - need of the hour

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Fri, 2011-02-04 02:46.

I congratulate you President Obama for announcing incentives which are part of a new plan to make buildings more energy efficient.

West spends more energy for heating while Sunbelt countries spend more energy for cooling.

Energy efficiency is the best way to save energy as the saying goes in Cricket, EACH RUN SAVED IS EACH RUN EARNED or perhaps in Football EACH GOAL SAVED IS EACH GOAL SCORED so also in energy EACH Kwh SAVED IS EACH Kwh GENERATED.

In India also ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS CONCEPT is catching up.

Here is a very interesting note (Confederation of Indian Industry CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre):

“A study conducted by Energy Information Administration, (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy indicates that there is a visible trend across the globe

wherein the growth rate in total energy consumption has been greater than the population growth rate. In the developed countries the energy consumption

growth rate is only marginally higher compared to the population growth rate. For example, in USA, energy consumption is projected to grow at 1.3% while the

population growth rate is projected to grow at 0.8%. In contrast, in developing countries like India population growth rate is expected to grow at 1.3% while the energy consumption rate is expected to grow at 4.3%. This trend would strain the energy sector to a large extent. The construction industry in the country is growing at a rapid pace and the rate of growth is 10 % as compared to the world average of 5.2%. Hence energy efficiency in the building sector assumes tremendous importance.

Commercial buildings are one of the major consumers of energy and are the third largest consumers of energy, after industry and agriculture. Buildings annually consume more than 20% of electricity used in India.

The potential for energy savings is 40 – 50% in buildings, if energy efficiency measures are incorporated at the design stage. For existing buildings, the potential can be as high as 20-25% which can be achieved by implementing house keeping and retrofitting measures.

The incremental cost incurred for achieving energy efficiency is 5-8% vis-à-vis conventional design cost and can have an attractive payback period of 2-4 years.

LEED India Rating System & Energy Efficiency:

The LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) green building rating system developed by the US Green Building Council is now recognised as an international rating system and followed by more than 24 countries. The LEED rating system has been indigenized by the Indian Green Building Council to suit the national context and priorities. Energy efficiency in design has been achieved by a number of buildings in India by adopting the LEED India green building rating system.

A LEED rated building consumes 30-50% lower energy as compared to a conventional building. These buildings are designed to surpass the ASHRAE 90.1.2004 standards or ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code)”.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

ENERGYBOOM

Emerging

World Wildlife Fund Report Shows 100% Renewable Energy Possible by 2050

By Harry Tournemille on February 4, 2011

A new report from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) claims to have the answers on how to have the entire world powered by renewable energy by 2050.

The Energy Report: 100% Renewable Energy by 2050, is the result of a collaborative effort between WWF and energy consultants Ecofys. Using intentionally conservative assumptions regarding energy costs, renewable energy technology progress, and expansion the report outlines key "ambitious but achievable" goals in getting global energy on the right path by mid-century.

Specific Claims of The Energy Report:

  • It is technically feasible to provide energy for everyone on the planet by 2050, with 95% of that energy coming from renewable sources.
  • Energy Saving Measures could ensure a 15% decline in global energy demand by 2050, in spite of rises in population, industrial output, freight and personal transportation.
  • Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and Hydro would be the main sources of energy.
  • Bioenergy would be the last resort resource -- used only where other renewables are not possible.
  • US$5.4 trillion in energy savings predicted, if measures are implemented instead of a "business as usual" attitude.
  • Fossil fuels and nuclear energy could be entirely phased out by 2050.

Coinciding with WWF's claims, the report also outlines ten recommendations for a 100% renewable future:

  1. Promote only the most efficient energy products.
  2. Clean energy must be shared through grids and trade.
  3. Promote efficient practices and ensure energy accessibility in developing countries.
  4. Invest in Clean Energy Companies and Products.
  5. Stop food waste and only promote food that is acquired in a sustainable and earth-friendly manner. Also, eat with an "equal rights" mindset, ensuring everyone in the world has access to adequate protein in their diets.
  6. Avoid wasteful consumerism. Look for durable product. Reduce, re-use, recycle.
  7. Provide incentives to encourage more use of public transportation. Ensure that public transportation is efficient and available to the populace.
  8. Develop national, bilateral, and multinational plans to research and development in clean-energy technology.
  9. Develop and enforce strict sustainability criteria to ensure renewable energy is compatible with the environment.
  10. Support ambitious global renewable energy agreements.

WWF and Ecofys are quick to point out that while President Obama's energy goals have been criticized as impossible, their findings suggest that renewable energy is not only achievable, but wholly necessary.

Lou Leonard, managing director of Climate Change at WWF writes, "At the international level, the clearest priorities are strong international agreement on climate change action, including viable levels of assistance to help developing countries to a sustainable energy future."

But the onus doesn't stop with governments, Leonard points out: "Individuals need to consider the implications of their energy use and lend their support to moving to a sustainable rather than an anxious and threatened future."

Comments

Tall Claim

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2011-02-06 09:15.

A simple Box Type Solar Cooker which is more than 60 years old is yet to make a mark in Developing countries. How could Renewables replace Conventional Energy by 2050? At best renewables can supplement conventional energy sources like petroleum, gas, coal etc., to some extent.

Let us be modest in our forecast.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

ENERGYBOOM

Finance, Solar

Second Largest Solar PV Installation On U.S. East Coast is Fully Operational

Submitted by eBoom Staff on January 26, 2011

Fifteen months after signing a power purchase agreement with Duke Energy Corp., in August 2009, SunEdison LLC began construction on a photovoltaic (PV) solar farm in Davidson County, North Carolina. With a price tag of an estimated US$173 million, the project was expected to be the largest PV solar installation in the United States.

In February 2010, SunEdision reported that the first phase of the project was complete, delivering 4-megawatts of solar energy to the electric grid.

Today, MMEC Electric Materials Inc. (NYSE: WFR), SunEdison's parent company, announced that the Davidson County project is now fully operational. The 63,000 photovoltaic solar panels that make up the 17.2 MW solar farm are expected to generate enough electricity 2,600 homes annually.

Two years after breaking ground on construction, the project is no longer the largest PV solar installation in the U.S. But according to SunEdison it has not fallen that far down the ladder as it is the "second largest active solar photovoltaic deployment on the east coast."

"Solar energy continues to increase in its importance to North Carolina customers," said Brett Carter, President, Duke Energy North Carolina. "Partnerships, like the one with SunEdison, have allowed Duke Energy to comply with North Carolina's solar requirements in a cost effective way."

Image Credit: SunEdison

Comment

Big is Bountiful!

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2011-01-27 02:47.

Yes. US is advancing in Solar Energy (PV).

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

ENERGYBOOM

Finance, Solar

U.S. DOE Campus Going Solar

Submitted by eBoom Staff on January 25, 2011

Over the last two weeks the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been busy dolling out loan guarantees for renewable energy projects including its most recent loan guarantee offer of US$967 million for what will be the largest photovoltaic (PV) solar plant in the world.

With this week's solar installation announcement from Pepco Energy Services Inc, the DOE is joining the ranks of the projects it has backed by committing to build a solar installation of its own.

A subsidiary of Pepco Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: POM), Pecpco Energy Services, has been awarded a contract to install a PV solar project at a Department of Energy campus in Germantown, Maryland. The project includes a 300 kW solar PV ground-mounted array and a 52 kW solar PV carport which will have a Class II electric car charing station. Pepco will use PV modules manufactured in the U.S. by the Federal Prison Industries.

The US$2.3 million dollar U.S. General Services Administration's Utility Energy Services Contract (UESC) began is expected to be up and running by July 2011. When complete the project generate approximately 350 kW of renewable, clean energy a day.

"Pepco Energy is pleased to implement the Department of Energy's photovoltaic project," said John Huffman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Pepco Energy.

Image Credit: Lauren Manning via Flickr

Comment

Seeing is believing

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2011-01-27 02:54.

Thousands will be visiting DOE Campus and as such PV in DOE Campus will act as catalyst for other offices to go solar.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

ENERGYBOOM

Emerging

Using Taconite for Solar Thermal Storage

By Jeanne Roberts on January 26, 2011

Imagine living in a climate where winter temperatures can plunge to 60 degrees below zero, and you will understand why homeowner and architect Nancy Schultz is laughing on the 21st of January.

“It was 29 below this morning, but inside my house there are no drafts. It’s like living in a vacuum.”

The 2,100 square-foot home is located in Isabella, Minnesota, in the heart of Superior National Forest, about 50 miles from the Canadian border. Schultz and her husband, John Eckfeld, put in a single cord of wood for heating, but they may never use it, because their house – by virtue of its superior insulation, total thermal barrier, and solar energy systems – maintains a constant 50 degrees even after 10 days without heat. The house also has a small electric boiler, equally likely to remain unused.

The house has already received PassivHaus certification (a “green” building efficiency rating system from Germany) and a platinum LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification for its 97-percent efficiency rating – a rating achieved via triple-pane thermal windows (top rating of R14), R50 insulated poured concrete walls, and a timber-framed roof rated R90.

Because the house is so airtight, the system includes a heat recovery ventilator, which takes the heat from stale air inside and transfers it to clean but cold outside air, to maintain a healthy environment.

The roof also supports two solar energy systems, the first an 8.1-kilowatt, grid-tied solar photovoltaic system which Schultz expects to create more electricity than they use, the second a passive solar thermal heating system that pumps glycol through tubes, where it collects heat to about 499 degrees, then sends it to a 500-gallon tank which is used to provide radiant, in-floor heat.

But the most impressive feature about this home is an experimental thermal storage system comprised of taconite, or crude iron ore pellets, which fills the top half of the basement well beneath the Isabella home (the bottom half contains sand). It is this taconite, leftover from Iron Range mining and bearing some of the thermal efficiency characteristics of asbestos, which stores heat when fluid in the 500-gallon tank reaches maximum.

Schultz, principal architect with SEH, a design and consulting firm focused on sustainable building, is also the founder of the US Passive House Institute, and her advocacy for this taconite storage technology may well find use for an inexpensive, abundant resource currently piled up the shores of Lake Superior.

Schultz is not the first to go here. There are several patents on using taconite for heat storage, but the Isabella Home is the first real-world test. The question is, is it commercially viable? Not yet, Schultz agrees:

“The payback for this specific home is several lifetimes. Depending, of course, on how soon we start paying for our future.”

She is referring, of course, to the nation’s (and the world’s) profligate use of fossil fuels, and the fact that Peak Oil may drive the price of electricity up dramatically.

“People think that to go down this road (toward net-zero energy in buildings) we will have to sacrifice. In fact, we come out with a much better quality of living.” She adds.

Comment

Excellent

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2011-01-27 03:00.

Innovative approach for Solar Thermal Storage.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

ENERGYBOOM

Finance, Transportation

GM Obtains License For New Advanced Battery Technology

Submitted by eBoom Staff on January 7, 2011

As the automobile industry rushes to develop and purchase the latest advanced battery technology for a rapidly growing electric and hybrid vehicle market, General Motors Co. (NYSE: GM) has sprinted ahead with its announcement that it has come to a licensing agreement with Argonne National Laboratory.

The agreement with Argonne, the United States' first national laboratory, licenses GM to use patented composite cathode material to produce advanced lithium-ion batteries worldwide. According to the U.S. Department of Energy funded laboratory, the cathode material will:

  • Extend the operating time between charges and increase the calendar life of batteries
  • Improve the inherent safety of lithium-ion cells
  • Allow charging at higher voltages, which leads to a substantially higher energy storage capacity

The deal not only increases advanced battery life it also could spark a "renewal of the American battery industry" which aligns with the mandate of Argonne's battery research and its goal to support the U.S. auto industry.

"The creation of this battery technology represents an important return on the American investment in innovative vehicle and battery research,” said Energy Secretary Steven Chu. “This agreement gives General Motors the ability to use cutting-edge battery technology throughout its supply chain. The licensing of this technology will also spur the renewal of the American battery industry, creating hundreds of new jobs where they are needed most.”

Image Credit: Argonne National Laboratory via Flickr.

Comment

Batteries have a major role in the future energy mix

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2011-01-27 03:07.

Advancement in the efficiency of Batteries is the need of the hour as most of the decentralised renewable energy systems need battery storage.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

ENERGYBOOM

Finance, Wind

China: Energy Producer Plans to Spend Big Wind

Submitted by eBoom Staff on January 21, 2011

State-owned energy producer China Resources Power Holdings Company, Ltd has announced plans to make large annual investments in wind power generation.

Currently, the Hong Kong-based utility generates 642 megawatts from 15 wind farms. Hoping to tap China's growing wind generation capacity, anticipated to reach 150 GW by 2020, China Resources Power has said it will spend up to US$970 million in new wind power projects. This investment is expected to add a combined 800 megawatts of renewable energy every year.

With 13 wind farms, with a combined capacity of 631 MW, under development for this year, the company is aggressivly working towards its goal of 100 GW by 2020.

According to Chief Financial Officer Wang Xiaobin, China Resources Power could generate up to 16% of its entire capacity from renewable sources by 2020.

Comments

Yes. China can do it

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sat, 2011-01-22 09:33.

Once it was THINK BIG in USA and now it is in China.

Gone are the days when SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL and now it is BIG IS BOUNTIFUL!

Today the size of the Wind Turbines is increasing day by day.

On its company premises in Magdeburg,Germany,Enercon has installed the first turbine of the type E-126 with an official rated capacity of 7.5 MW. It is the most powerful wind turbine at present. The hub height is 135 m.

Nordex announced the construction of a 6 MW direct drive - wind turbine for offshore installation off the island of Rugen.

World’s Largest Wind Farm Begins Operation:

Thanet Wind Farm, located seven miles off the blustery coast of Kent, England, has officially begun operation.

Located in water over 50 feet deep and standing 385 feet tall, the project’s 100 Vestas turbines are spread over 35 sq km, making it the world’s largest off-shore wind farm in the world.

Swedish power company, Vattenfall, began the construction phase two years ago, finally putting the last turbine in place in June. Completed for 780 million pounds, on windy days it will produce 300 megawatts and power 200,000 homes. This brings the UK’s total wind power capacity to over 5 gigawatts. Currently, there are close to 250 wind farms in the UK, with 12 more off shore, bringing the total number of turbines to 2,909

World's Biggest Wind Turbine Generates 10 MW And It Floats!

by Jerry James Stone, San Francisco, CA on 02.15.10

Science & Technology (solar) ,treehugger

In an attempt to make offshore wind farms more profitable, Norway plans to build the world's largest turbine standing 533 feet tall with a rotor diameter of 475 feet. It will also be the most powerful by generating 10-megawatts to power over 2,000 homes, making it three times more powerful than current turbines.

"We are aiming to install it in 2011," said Enova's head of new technology, Kjell Olav Skoelsvik. The prototype will cost $67.5 million to build and Enova's committed to $23 million of it.

The power gain comes from reducing the weight and number of moving parts in the turbine--it uses a gearless generator system.

It will be built by the Norwegian company Sway and tested first on land in Oeygarden, southwestern Norway. Unlike most offshore wind projects where turbines rest on the seafloor, Sway turbines float. This means further offshore development where winds are stronger and more consistent.

The floating tower is a pole filled with ballast beneath the water creating low center of gravity. Anchored to the seabed with a single pipe and a suction anchor, it can tilt 5-8°, and turn around with the wind.

World's largest onshore wind farms


Wind farm

Current
capacity
(MW)

Country

Biglow Canyon Wind Farm

450

USA

Buffalo Gap Wind Farm

523.3

USA

Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm

662.5

USA

Dabancheng Wind Farm

500

China

Fowler Ridge Wind Farm

599.8

USA

Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center

735.5

USA

Panther Creek Wind Farm

458

USA

Roscoe Wind Farm

781.5

USA

Sweetwater Wind Farm

585.3

USA





Source: Wikipedia

World's largest offshore wind farms


Wind farm

Capacity (MW)

Country

Commissioned

Thanet

300

United Kingdom

2010

Horns Rev II

209

Denmark

2009

Rødsand II

207

Denmark

2010

Lynn and Inner Dowsing

194

United Kingdom

2008

Robin Rigg (Solway Firth)

180

United Kingdom

2010

Gunfleet Sands

172

United Kingdom

2010

Nysted (Rødsand I)

166

Denmark

2003






Source: Wikipedia

World’s Most Reliable Windmill:

When Big Wind Turbines like MOD A and MOD B,Growian were not successful at a time when they were installed, a classic example of success and community spirit is The Tvind windmill, "Tvindkraft" in Denmark. It is still the Big Wind Turbine with longest history. I visited the Tvindmill. It has a huge concrete tower with lift in it. Incidentally when almost all Wind Turbines today are UPWIND(Wind strikes the blades first),Tvindmill is DOWNWIND(Wind Strikes the tower first).

Tvindkraft Windmill

Some history...

The Tvind windmill, "Tvindkraft" was created during the years 1975-78, at the initiative of and financed by the teacher group of the schools at Tvind. The time was the time of the oil crisis, and the debate was for or against nuclear power - for or against wind power - nuclear power or wind power. The price of energy had multiplied, and something had to be done. The Danish industry was pressing on to introduce nuclear power as a cheap alternative to the expensive oil. A majority in the Danish Parliament was building up. At Tvind people were against the nuclear power, with its problems of nuclear waste and monopolization.

Wind energy was common sense. There is lots of wind in Western Jutland. The wind cannot be monopolized - it blows on the poor as well as on the rich - and there are no dangerous waste products. So the idea was formed and turned into a decision to build a windmill. Tvindkraft had to be big, a proof of wind power being a real alternative to nuclear power.

And as a matter of fact, Denmark never got nuclear power, and thereby the natural environment in this country was saved from the big, and as of yet unsolved, problems of nuclear waste.


It took three years to build Tvindkraft. "Mølleholdet" ["The Mill Team"] was the implementing force, and consisted of members of Tvind’s Teacher Group and a long row of volunteers who by their labour wished to participate in this vigorous demonstration in the energy debate. They solved the difficulties which arose along the way, and through tireless work they erected the windmill: the excavation and the foundation, the tower that slid upward in its gliding form, the cap and the hub with its complicated welding. The blades, which no manufacturer dared commit themselves to producing, and where aerodynamics, calculations of strength as well as practical execution had to be developed from scratch.

The shaft, gearbox and generator were bought second hand, and "Krabbe’s box" [the frequency converter control box] was put together by professor Ulrich Krabbe from DTH [Denmark’s Technical University] and his students, who got themselves a really good final examination task. It was used for converting the varying frequency of the generator, so that the mill could deliver power to the power grid. Computer control and supervision systems were developed, and long assembly language programs were written for the Z80-computer. And finally, the large cranes arrived and hoisted all the parts up. First the cap, and then the generator and gear box on top, the main shaft with the hub, and finally the blades, one at the time. Like that.

The Danes were flocking to see what was happening, to voice their opinions and give good advice and encouragement. Many gave a hand in shorter or longer periods, others got a cup of tea and then left again - assured that something groundbreaking was taking place, something which would have a tremendous impact on the future. In 1977, when the construction was about to finish, 77,000 people passed by in a two-month period.

Tvindkraft was created to show the way forward for wind energy - and to show the way out for nuclear power. But the most important thing was probably that the Teacher Group showed that it was possible for normal people, without any significant scientific education, to build a large wind power plant. With their determination, their drive, their elbow grease and common sense, cooperation and support, where help was to be found, this unparalleled structure was created - despite comments like: "You are doing wind power a disservice by trying to build a windmill", and despite the fact that no authority wanted to give any financial assistance to the windmill construction, although it clearly followed the recommendations of the ‘Akademiet for Teknisk Videnskaber’ [Academy for Technical Sciences] to promote the development of wind energy in Denmark, with both practical experiments as well as research projects.

There were almost two separate, but parallel, development processes for wind energy inside this small country.

One process was the private initiative
Everywhere windmills began to pop up, with Tvindkraft as the biggest. Denmark already had good traditions for using wind power for electricity production. Johannes Juul from SEAS [Sjællands Elecktricitets Aktieselskab - Electricity Producers of Sealand, Inc.] had developed the Bogø-mill in 1953, and in ’57 the Gedser-mill started running. Both windmills used three blades, a moderate revolving speed with stall regulation, directly coupled with an asynchronous generator and an active yawing system - a rotational system for positioning the windmill into or out of the wind - a concept which was based on common sense and practical experiences, and which later came to make up the backbone of the Danish windmill industry.

The other process was the Danish national energy programme
Preben Maegaard from the ‘Folkecenteret for Vedvarende Energi’ [Nordic Folkecenter for Renewable Energy] describes in a summary how the ‘Akademiet for Teknisk Videnskaber’s’ above-mentioned recommendation for wind energy was put into practice. "If wind energy was to become reality, something completely else had to be done" - was the clear tendency. Real research had to be done, and it could not be carried out by just anybody. A consortium was created by a number of industrial enterprises. And now windmills would be developed.

The first ones to result from the wind power program of the Ministry of Trade’s and the energy companies were the two Nibe-mills. Unfortunately the choice was made not to build on previously gained experiences - neither Danish nor foreign. A totally essential part of a windmill is its blades, and Denmark had neither industry nor research institutions with any particular knowledge of aerodynamics.
The situation is different in countries with an airplane industry - there they would be able to construct a windmill blade, also of a large size. But the Danish wind power program did not ask in those places, and it had sad consequences for the results of the Nibe-mills.

One mill was given fibreglass blades in combination with some very cleverly welded steel constructions, which actually could not be verified with regard to the condition of the constantly varying strain occurring in a rotor. The other windmill had a load-bearing inner beam of fibreglass, which did not last long despite a large-scale and expensive development effort. Few years later both mills were given wooden blades, which after a lightning damage were replaced by blades from Vestas.

How did the Mill Team at Tvind handle the task with the blades?
First of all, they admitted the fact that they didn’t have any understanding whatsoever of blades, and therefore looked for help where help was to be found. One place was Stuttgart, where professor Ulrich Hütter had many years of experience with fibreglass blades, and a special technique where fibreglass cables were wrapped around the hub bolts. This technique was used for the blades on Tvindkraft.

The Mill Team constructed "the sausage machine" and the fibreglass sausages were stretched out along the whole length of the blade, and around the blade bolts. Then sausage upon sausage was added until the blade was completed, was carried out by everybody at Tvind, and could be hoisted up into its place.

Preben Maegaard emphasizes that this was later used as an example of a good technique. The same technique was used for the small PTG-mill, [PTG = Practical Theoretical Vocational Education] also developed at Tvind (where the mould was later lent out to interested mill builders). Later on the technique was used for the "Økær-blades", a company which became the first supplier of blades to the budding windmill industry. Other industrial production forms have since then been developed and made progress.

Many do-it-yourself builders built their own windmills, and there was an obvious foundation for starting an industrial production. The windmill industry has gradually developed into Denmark’s second largest export industry, and Denmark has for many years been among the most influential in the field of wind energy.

And we are proud of the fact that it was the Mill Team at Tvind who brought Hütter’s technique to Denmark, who built some very large blades which could last, and who demonstrated that building modern windmills actually could be done.

Henrik Stiesdal, the technical director for the wind mill producer Bonus Energy, who visited Tvind for the first time in 1976 and who has worked with wind energy ever since, says to the magazine ‘Ingeniøren’ [The Engineer]:

"The effect of the Tvind mill as a source of inspiration cannot be overstated. A large number of the pioneers became hooked, like me, on the possibilities and practical challenges of wind power when they visited Tvind. The almost nonchalant self-confidence with which the Mill Team built something no one had ever done before was very contagious.

Added to this is the fact that some of the first tools were developed at Tvind, partly physical tools like the blade moulds for 4,5 meter blades, suitable for do-it-yourself mills, and partly measuring tools and instruction manuals. The existence of the ‘Vestjysk Energikontor’ [The West Jutland Energy Office], created in connection with the mill project, was also essential.

The Tvind mill was not the only concrete inspiration. Similarly inspiring was Christian Riisager from Skærbæk at Herning, who in 1976 erected the first privately owned electricity producing windmill. With its 22 kW-output compared to the 2 MW of the Tvind mill, Riisager’s mill was a more realistic prototype. One could say that Riisager’s mill showed the concrete and practical way, whereas the Tvind mill indicated the overall potentials.

And I think it is interesting that we today market windmills which have exactly the same basic dimensions as the Tvind mill has - 54 m. rotational diameter, for example the Bonus’ 1 MW mill type."

Today there are approximately 6,000 wind mills in Denmark, and they produced app. 4,500 Gwh of electricity in the year 2000. This was 13% of Denmark's electricity consumption. This means that 1,4 million tons of carbon did not get burnt off, and the natural environment was spared 4 million tons of pollution. Thus one has to conclude that Tvindkraft both directly and indirectly has had a decisive importance for the protection of the natural environment.

When Tvindkraft produces power, it relieves the environment
In round figures, Tvindkraft produced 10 million kilowatt hours of energy during its first 15 years.

If the same amount of energy had been produced in an ordinary power plant, this would mean the burning of 3000 tons of coal.

This burning would pollute the environment with:

8,200 tons carbon dioxide (CO2)
15 tons sulphur dioxide (SO2)
15 tons nitrogen oxides (NOx)
550 tons cinder and fly ash

In Total 8,870 tons of pollutants

(The 3,000 tons of coal actually turns into many more tons of pollution, since the carbon combines with oxygen and forms carbon dioxide, CO2)(Source: Tvind Internationale Skolecenter).

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Wind Energy Expert

Blog: www.drjagadeeshncda.blogspot.com

E-mail: anumakonda.jagadeesh@gmail.com

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