Monday, July 26, 2010




The Real Economics of the Increasingly Competitive Wind Power Industry

Submitted by eBoom Staff on January 2, 2011

As if the 2010 BP Debacle and myriad coal mining conundrums were not enough to rein in renewable energy skeptics, today’s Boston Herald features an article by Jay Fitzgerald, writing in opposition to the additional sea-based wind farms proposed for Massachusetts. In it, Fitzgerald cites “other experts” who believe that offshore wind will always be “more expensive” than traditional fossil-fuel energy sources.

And, there are similar “reporters” coast to coast who continually confound their readers with twisted facts and incomplete research. From Boston to Los Angeles and from Chicago to Houston, the pages allotted to stories accentuating the “higher costs” of renewable energy outnumber those that clarify the widespread economic benefits of renewable energy.

In light of the new year upon us, I’d like to offer reporters a more realistic economic analysis of wind power, with the hope that they may choose to adopt a more contemporary view of the new energy economy.

Carl Safina, one of the world’s leading marine scientists, whose body of work spans over 30 years, writes in The Washington Post on December 21, 2010, “U.S. leadership on climate change and energy innovation is very much about national security, patriotism, and rebuilding the economy. The nation that owns the energy future will own the future.”

Mark Z. Jacobson, a Stanford University professor and the Director of the University’s Atmosphere and Energy Program, co-authored in 2001 a Science Magazine article entitled, “Exploiting Wind Versus Coal.” Jacobson reported then that when the health and environmental costs of coal-based energy are calculated, “the total price for coal-based energy…” ranges from “…$0.055 to $0.083 per kilowatt-hour (kWh).” Interesting, since the U.S. Department of Energy reports that as of 2008, top performing wind farms in areas with excellent wind resources had costs averaging only $0.059 per kWh, a price clearly competitive with, if not far less than, the costs of coal.

So apples to apples, wind power projects don’t cost more than the polluting, all-too-familiar energy sources we’ve come to accept, if only because until recently, American consumers have had few options.

More reporters need to awaken to the reality that if the U.S. is to regain its economic might, transitioning to a more diversified energy portfolio will be an essential component of recovery. To build the robust economy Safina points to, the once elusive, intangible benefits of wind power will have to be embraced as the powerful national assets that they are.

Namely, increased wind power construction replaces the need for new coal plants. For over a half century, existing coal plants have altered the American landscape and the American psyche by collectively:

1) compromising the pH balance of lakes (acid rain);
2) elevating mercury concentrations in fish;
3) aggravating and/or causing respiratory illnesses, including lung cancer, asthma, heart disease, and black lung disease;
4) generating poisonous coal mine slag that contaminates drinking water, and;
5) obliterating forests and hillsides in communities where Mountain Top Removal mining is still allowed.

Lisa Jackson of the Environmental Protection Agency has reported that the U.S. government has paid out $35 billion, since 1973, to cover just the medical expenses of coal miners with black lung disease. This is just one component of the wildly under-reported health costs resulting from the coal mining industry.

So, while the benefits of wind power and other increasingly competitive sources of renewable energy may still elude some, the facts relating to the mining and burning of coal are indisputable, and this is what reporters and American consumers need to know.


Wind Power is indeed competititive in Windy locations

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2011-01-16 04:59.

Wind Energy is most competitive compared to Solar provided the Wind Turbines are installed in a windy area. Since power is cube of velocity,the economics of Wind Energy depend mostly on the Windy location. Another concept catching up in the Europe and will shortly penetrate in USA ,China,Taiwan,Korea,France etc., is Off shore Wind farms.

Here is an excellent analysis on the subject:

Capital Costs and Income

A brief introduction to making money from wind

A well sited and well planned community-scale wind installation in Massachusetts can make modest profits. This is a brief look at the costs and revenues involved in community wind projects.

Income Sources

A community that owns a medium- or commercialscale wind turbine in New England has, in a sense, three potential income streams: Use and/or sale of electricity (kWh ) Sale of Renewable Energy Certificates (REC’s) Federal production tax credit (PTC) or Renewable Energy Production Incentive (REPI), when available. First, the energy (kWh) is sold or used. Energy used on-site is more valuable because it avoids buying energy at the retail price, which includes charges for transmission, distribution, etc. Any power that is not used on-site is sold on the market, typically under a contract referred to as a power purchase agreement, or PPA. A second contract is needed to sell the Renewable Energy Certificates (REC’s) that are “generated” along with the power. Finally, a federal production incentive may offer either a tax credit or a payment of 1.5-1.8 ¢ / kWh. Capital Costs In Massachusetts, installed costs for commercialscale

turbines might be expected to be in the range of $1.2-1.5 Million/MW, i.e. a 1.5 MW machine might cost $2.25 M to purchase and install.

Energy Production Estimates

The amount of energy (MWh) that a wind turbine makes each year depends on many things, but the biggest factors are the wind speed at hub-height, and the size and type of turbine. This table gives a rough estimate of the amount of energy that a commercial-scale wind turbine could make. Use this information to estimate the impact of site choice (i.e. varying wind speeds) and turbine choice (e.g. varying sizes.) See the supplement, Fact Sheet 2a, for more discussion of capacity factor. A variety of assumptions must be

made to estimate capacity factors, so bear in mind that these are approximations and should be used only for comparison. Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst Moorhead Minnesota, 750 kW NEG Micon Turbine. Picture credit: source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Photographic Information Exchange.

This town-owned wind turbine provides income for the town of Hull’s municipal light company. Assumptions used here: Based on manufacturer’s data and manufacturer supplied power curves for commercial turbines available in the US in 1.5-1.8 MW size range. Other size turbines area available. Assume Rayleigh distribution,

constant sea-level air density, etc. Assume 5% losses to account for unavailability, transformer losses, etc. Binning for estimates is conservative, i.e. based on the lower end of ranges. Note that when considering TrueWind mean speed estimates, they may be given at a hub height of 70 m. Taller and shorter towers are possible. Lower hub heights could result in a lower capacity factor. Annual avg. wind speed at hub height, Estimated Capacity Factor, Estimated MWh/yr per 1.5-1.8 MW turbine

6.0 m/s 22% - 25% 3,320 - 3,500

6.5 m/s 27% - 30% 3,920 - 4,190

7.0 m/s 31% - 34% 4,500 - 4,880

7.5 m/s 35% - 39% 5,150 - 5,540

(Source: Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst Wind Power:, Performance & Economics Wind Power on the Community Scale)

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India



California Study Calculates Benefits of Clean Energy Innovation

Submitted by eBoom Staff on January 13, 2011

Last week, Michael Norton’s January 4th article for the Provincetown Banner, Eight More Cape Winds? questioned the efficacy of Massachusetts partnering with research institutions and offshore wind energy experts to reduce the cost of offshore wind by 40 percent by 2020 and 60 percent by 2030.

Norton’s article, like so many others that have monopolized media headlines for years, discounts the relevance of green energy research and innovation. Are American journalists simply dismissing the economic adrenaline that a Clean Energy Industrial Revolution would deliver, or do they genuinely lack the awareness of resource economics, which compelling pairs job creation, corporate profits, and long-term economic sustainability?

Maria Bartiromo, Anchor of CNBC’s Closing Bell, proclaimed last Friday on MSNBC’s Hardball Show with Chris Matthews, “If there’s one thing we need to protect in this country it’s innovation. We need to be manufacturing again. We need to sell products to the rest of the world.”

When David Corn, Washington Bureau Chief for Mother Jones Magazine, offered Bartiromo the solution that a clean energy economy could enliven abandoned U.S. factories by producing the components we currently import from other counties, particularly China, Bartiromo, like so many economists looking for a quick profit replied, “Come on, come on…going green won’t work.”

Fortunately, there is economic evidence to the contrary. Going green can work. The recently released Energy Policy paper (Part ll)*, co-authored by Mark A. Delucchi, Professor of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Davis, and Mark Z. Jacobson, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Stanford University, is opportune in that it clarifies the marked distinctions between the cost of wind-powered energy, for example, and traditional fossil fuel energy sources, such as coal. The authors’ November 22, 2010 report validates Massachusetts’ aim in pioneering increasingly sustainable clean energy solutions beyond the recently approved Cape Wind project.

In Delucchi and Jacobson’s 21-page study, which was not funded by any interest group, company, or governmental agency, the authors’ findings are telling: When the “external costs” of coal (the human health and environmental burdens of burning coal to make electricity) are combined with coal’s production costs (mining, transportation, etc.), the price for coal-based energy in 2005 ranged from a low of $0.082 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) to a high of $0.290 per kWh. Looking forward to 2030, the authors’ models project coal’s combined production and external costs in the range of $0.10 to over $0.30 per kWh.

This is profoundly important information, considering that the U.S. Department of Energy reports that as of 2008, top performing wind farms in areas with excellent wind resources had costs averaging only $0.059 per kWh, significantly less than the current and projected costs of coal-based energy, documented by Delucchi and Jacobson.

Moreover, Delucchi and Jacobson’s paper presents, in Table 1, that the “generation and conventional transmission costs" for onshore wind power ranged from $0.04 to $0.07 per kWh in the last five years, pairing nicely with the Department of Energy’s calculations. Offshore wind power, while generally more expensive than onshore wind, is presented in the report as costing about the same as coal, when the health and environmental burdens of coal's external costs are incorporated. Offshore wind power, however, is projected by the authors to be less expensive than coal by 2020-2030.

Delucchi and Jacobson’s statistics debunk the distorted calculus of fossil fuel pundits, who routinely misguide American consumers (and journalists) into believing that clean energy innovation and U.S. economic vitality are mutually exclusive.

The authors’ paper concludes: “Evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes everywhere in the world from wind, water, and the sun (WWS), the barriers to a 100 % conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic.”

The researchers’ findings not only validate the metrics championed by social economists, like James Hansen, Bill McKibben, Thomas Friedman, Eric Pooley, and James Hoggan, who each support a major shift in U.S. energy policy, but they also pass scrutiny with world-renowned Venture Capitalist firm, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. In a 2008 telephone interview, John Denniston, KPCB’s Green Team leader, shared his perspective as to why there remains resistance to U.S. energy reform and clean energy advancements. In two words Denniston remarked, “Public perception.”

Last week, Representative Rush Holt, of New Jersey, mirrored Denniston’s view. He described on MSNBC’s Rachel Maddow Show what he sees as an “anti-science agenda” that seeks to disparage scientific breakthroughs in clean energy and roll back epic environmental achievements, such as the 1970s’ Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. Rep. Holt, who himself supports reenergizing the American economy through energy innovation, decries the disdain of opponents who allege that energy reform is “nothing more than malarkey.”

The lack of alignment between fact-based clean energy economics and the public’s perception of its viability (what Rep. Holt calls the “evidence-free zone” of thinking) may explain, in part, the failure of legislative energy reform in 2010. Recent Gallup and Pew Research Center polling data reveals that public interest in energy modernization and climate action has declined significantly over the last three years.

While it is true that the disparity between clean energy fact and fiction is largely the work of well-staged and well-financed fossil fuel corporate messaging, surely a country in need of an economic-energy boom can see beyond the crafty ads portraying “regular Americans” endorsing offshore oil exploration and coal mining as the future of American innovation. On the contrary, acknowledging that fossil fuels carry profoundly heavy environmental and human health costs, and that paired side-to-side, renewable energy is not only cleaner and safer, but also economically competitive, change becomes the easy option, not the mystifying, destabilizing conundrum opponents portray.

Imagine the U.S. shifting its collective perspective just a fraction of a degree, but far enough that it embraces Delucchi and Jacobson’s model? Imagine Americans back to work building and manufacturing, for example, windmill blades, towers, and turbines; thin-film solar components; wave-powered electrical generators; urban and rural bike-ways, efficient transportation vehicles, and an updated national energy grid!

And if pragmatic economics alone are not enough to change a nation’s outlook, perhaps focusing on the core pride of our nation should be!

Dr. Carl Safina, one of the world’s leading marine researchers, reflected on this topic when he wrote in The Washington Post December 21st, 2010: “As several writers including myself have pointed out, U.S. leadership on climate change and energy innovation is also very much about national security, patriotism and rebuilding the economy. The nation that owns the energy future will own the future…but the United States has to decide it wants to lead.”

*Delucchi, M.A., Jacobson, M.Z., Providing all global energy with wind water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies. Energy Policy (2010), doi:10.1016/j.empol.2010.11.045


Yes. Clean Energy Innovation has several advantages

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2011-01-16 04:06.

Yes. Clean Energy Innovations have many advantages. Here is an interesting analysis on the subject:

“This country is at an economic and environmental crossroads and needs to chart a more sustainable path forward.

Innovation in the energy sector has the potential to be a critical economic driver and opportunity. America’s business and policy leaders must embrace energy innovation now or cede market leadership to China or other countries already flexing their economic muscle in this sector.
Congress has the chance to generate substantial, long-term economic benefits, protect the environment, and address the country’s long-term energy needs, all by supporting innovation and expansion of America’s clean energy industries.

Today in Washington, the Clean and Safe Energy (CASEnergy) Coalition will join with leaders from the manufacturing, economic development and wind energy sectors to unveil a “Policy Roadmap for Clean Energy,” which makes the case for a diverse U.S. clean energy portfolio that places a premium on job creation.

The roadmap makes four broad policy recommendations to chart a viable course for a sustainable clean energy policy:

1 – Enact policies to take control of America’s energy security
Ninety-five percent of the country’s transportation infrastructure is powered by oil, and more than half of it comes from overseas. Federal support for electric and hybrid vehicles is a good start to correct this dependency, but those vehicles will only be as clean as their electricity source. The current electric grid won’t be able to handle large volumes of renewable energy technologies unless it’s modernized. Advanced nuclear energy facilities operating 24/7 will be needed to help green the vehicle fleet.

2 – Ensure access to financing for clean energy projects
Access to capital is the biggest hurdle clean energy developers face. Credit is still tight and private investors are leery of financing large infrastructure projects without guaranteed rates of return. Federal incentives, such as clean energy loan guarantees, help ease access to capital markets and ultimately reduce the cost of electricity to consumers.

Existing loan guarantee authority for nuclear energy makes possible only two or three more projects. President Obama has proposed tripling the loan guarantee volume available for new plants as part of his 2011 budget. It’s a step in the right direction, but the Electric Power Research Institute estimates America will need at least 45 new reactors, alongside similar increases for other clean energy sources, in order to meet the 42 percent cut in greenhouse gas emissions outlined in last year’s Waxman-Markey energy bill.

3 – Increase investment in clean energy jobs
Another challenge is training a new generation of workers because half of the nuclear energy industry’s workforce will be eligible to retire during the next decade. Nuclear energy alone could create as many as 70,000 jobs in the coming years if all of the plants that are needed get built. Federal job-training grants are critical to ensure that eligible companies in the clean energy supply chain will be able to fill high-paying jobs with American workers.

4 – Address nuclear used fuel storage needs
For five decades the nuclear energy industry has securely safeguarded used fuel at nuclear plant sites as a bridge to longer-term solutions. Federal action on storage as well as support for research into advanced, proliferation-resistant recycling technologies would allow America to extract the maximum amount of energy from the fuel while minimizing the amount that requires disposal.

Such economic development, energy security and clean air benefits should not be limited to Waynesboro, Ga. Clean energy companies are ready to hire, creating thousands of new jobs that will help the country meet its growing energy needs while preserving the environment. With targeted policy support, we can help ensure that clean energy’s economic and environmental benefits are enjoyed by all.”

(Souce: Energy Innovation an Economic Path Forward,Thorium MSR, By Christine Todd Whitman and Patrick Moore - 05/12/10 08:45 AM ET).

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India


Finance, Solar

Innovative Solar Bus Shelter Powers the Grid in California

Submitted by eBoom Staff on January 14, 2011

Its seems as though solar panels are beginning to show up everywhere. From devices like mobile phones to computer keyboards to structures like hi-way emergency telephone booths and bus stop shelters, companies are continuing to develop creative ways to harness the sun's energy.

GoGreenSolar is one of those creative companies. One of its innovative ideas brings solar power to the rooftops of bus shelters. Bus shelters powered by the sun are becoming more prevalent but typically they store the harnessed energy in batteries to be used to light the shelters at night. GoGreenSolar's creative twist is to tie the bus shelter solar panels into the grid, creating a mini power generator.

GoGreenSolar bus shelters are installed with six panels and six inverters which can generate approximately 1.2 kilowatts of power which exceeds the minimum 1 kilowatt required to qualify for the California Solar Initiative rebate as well as the federal tax grant program.

The City Of Corona, California became the first city to install a grid connected GoGreenSolar shelter. According to Deep Patel, GoGreenSolar's CEO, during the summer months not only will the shelter generate enough electricity to power the intersection where it sits but it will also create income for Corona. The GoGreenSolar shelters cost US$14,500, just a fraction more than the US$10,000 to US$12,000 than conventional bus stops. However, with the tax grant and the Solar Initiative rebate the extra cost is nearly wiped out.

"It's microgeneration -- distributed generation at the micro level and a huge opportunity to generate power in our community," said Patel.

Read the full article at GreenTechScholar: Solar Bus Shelters From GoGreenSolar

Image Credit: modern_carpentry via Flickr


Most Innovative Solar Project

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2011-01-16 04:18.

Innovative Solar Bus Shelter is indeed a major advance in Solar Energy utilisation. USA and Germany are leaders in Innovative Solar Technologies. With everyday improvements in the Efficiency of Solar Cells,it is hoped developing countries will follow suit.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India



Scientists Mimic Plants to Create Liquid Solar Fuel

By Farron Cousins on January 4, 2011

A team of U.S. and Swiss scientists have successfully created technology that can turn solar energy to a usable liquid form of fuel. Researchers say that the method used is similar to the way that plants photosynthesize the sun’s energy to create fuel.

While the process has only been tried in lab settings on a small scale, the success of the experiments could open the door to a new world of sustainable energy.

The machine that has been created uses the energy of the sun to superheat the element Cerium. Once heated to a temperature of 1,600 degrees Celsius, the Cerium acts as a catalyst that strips compound elements such as water or carbon dioxide into hydrogen and carbon monoxide, respectively. Both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide molecules can then be turned into liquid fuels.

In addition to creating sustainable energy, the Cerium itself is not used up during the chemical reactions, so it can be used multiple times. Researchers say that Cerium is as common as copper, and is the most abundant of the rare earth metals.

Professor Sossina Haile, one of the leaders of the project, said that the current prototype machine is still far from perfect. For example, she points out that their current model is unable to harness a full 1% of the total solar energy that is taken in.

The scientists will continue to work on their machine and believe that it won’t be long before they are able to create a prototype capable of harnessing as much as 19% of the total solar energy input.


A good case of Gimmicking

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2011-01-16 04:27.

Nature is the source of major breakthroughs in Science and Technology. Liquid Solar Fuel will open up yet another innovative approach of Solar Energy Utilisation

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Emerging, Finance

Empire State Building Powered By 100% Renewable Energy

By Joseph Baker on January 10, 2011

Manager of the Empire State Building, Malkin Holdings announced that it has signed a contract to purchase 100% wind energy from Green Mountain Energy Company.

Voted the United States' most beloved building and perhaps the world's most iconic skyscraper, the 102-story structure will become New York City's largest commercial building to source 100% of its power from renewable energy.

In the two year deal [pdf], Green Mountain, through its parent company NRG Energy (NYSE: NRG), will provide nearly 55 million kilowatt hours of wind energy a year in the form of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs).

So, the building will not be fitted with wind turbines nor will wind energy be piped directly from a wind farm, rather the management company purchases RECs in the amount of energy used by the building ensuring that the equivalent energy "is added to the U.S. power grid from renewable sources and supports the further development of these projects."

With this move the Empire State Building will reduce its carbon footprint by 100 million pounds per year -- equivalent to every house in New York State turning the lights off for a week. The building is projected to rank number 18 on Environmental Protection Agency's Top 100% Green Power Purchaser List, which represents green power purchasers that are buying green power to meet 100% of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

"This announcement is historic for many reasons. In addition to being the largest commercial consumer of green power in New York City, the Empire State Building’s renewable power purchase is now the largest purchase in our company’s 13-year history. This demonstrates that Green Mountain can serve all sizes of commercial customers with renewable energy at a price they can afford, and that going green doesn’t have to be a tradeoff,” said Anthony E. Malkin, President of Malkin Holdings.

Image Credit: Ami's via


President Barack Obama is a staunch supporter of Renewable Energy. He will set an example by utilising Renewable Energy in White House to the extent possible.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India


Italy's Clean Energy Expands With Small Wind Farm Installations

By Harry Tournemille on December 29, 2010

Continues to Expand Small Wind Farm Installations

The latest news regarding Italy's promising expansion of small wind farm installations can be sourced to the Italy southern region of Molise, at RWE Innogy's Ururi wind farm project.

This past week the German company commissioned its Ururi wind farm, announcing 13 new Vestas wind turbines with a total capacity of 26 MW. This translates into 55 million kilowatt hours of renewable energy -- enough to supply the annual energy needs of 18,000 homes.

This is the second project in Italy for RWE Innogy, renewable energy subsidiary of REW AG (XETRA: RWE.DE), brought into fruition in alliance with its strategic partner FRI-EL Green Power. This past summer, another similar project in San Basilio came to fruition, as well as the beginning of a new wind project.

Add to this the first biomass project set for Sicily, and it's no stretch to see RWE Innogy has found its niche.

What's interesting about RWE is the depth of its scope. Whereas many companies focus on one particular aspect of clean energy, RWE Innogy remains diverse, implementing projects that vary from biomass to wind to energy storage. Their secret: careful partnerships from applied research to project development.

Future projects include a Marine Power Station off the coast of Scotland, in Siadar Bay on the Isle of Lewis.



Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2010-12-30 02:00.

Yes. Italy is advancing in Wind Energy. I know small Wind Turbines have great future in Italy as decentralised power. I worked in Italy in 1990s and visited some Wind Turbine Installations. In 2001, the European Commission issued its Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources. The Directive set a goal for Italy to obtain at least 25% of its electricity from renewables by 2010. The 1999 Italian ‘White Book’ targeted to install 2,500 MW of wind power capacity by 2010; Italy exceeded this in 2007. The Italian government targeted 12,000 MW by 2020. Given that Italy's recent growth in wind power capacity has been about 30% annually, the target appears reachable by 2015. Italy introduced a renewable energy quota system in 2002, and uses green certificates to ensure that power producers and importers produce specified percentages of electricity from renewables. Renewable energy under the quota system must come from new or repowered plants which began operating after April 1, 1999 The table shows the annual increase in installed wind power capacity in recent years. Year Nameplate capacity (MW) 2000 427, 2001 690, 2002 797 2003, 913 2004, 1,255 2005, 1,718 2006, 2,123 2007, 2,726 2008, 3,736 2009, 4,850 Wind Power Installed Capacity of Top 13 countries (As on 30th June 2010) Sl. Country Capacity No. (MW) 1. USA 36693 2. Germany 26386 3. China 25805 4. Spain 19876 5. India 11500 6. Italy 5361 7. France 5032 8. UK 4616 9. Portugal 3887 10. Denmark 3641 11. Canada 3499 12. Netherlands 2227 13. Japan 2110

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Finance, Solar

The World's Largest Single Building Solar Generator: China Railway Station to Generate 10MW of Solar Power

Submitted by eBoom Staff on December 14, 2010

Hangzhou, China will soon host the world's largest single-building photovoltaic (PV) solar system.

According to solar developer Astronergy, its grid-connected 10MW system integrated into the new Hangzhou's East Railway Station will become "one of the most prominent low-carbon projects in Hangzhou's history and will serve as a model for other PV initiatives across the nation."

The company says that the station, which will host a slew of transportation services including subway, high-speed rail and buses, is estimated to facilitate 75 million trips annually. The facility will integrate PV generation on all surfaces of the building.

The US$40.5 million project, which is estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8,193 tonnes is expected to be fully operational by the end of 2011.

"By bringing together two very necessary elements of sustainable cities- efficient transit and clean energy, we are setting an example for cities worldwide that sustainability is, in fact, achievable," said Dr. Liyou Yang, CEO of Astronergy.


Keep it up solar progress China

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2010-12-19 23:52.

This is how Solar Energy can be promoted on a big scale. China is doing wonders in Renewable Energy utilisation and promotion.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India



India Turns to Solar to Meet its Energy Needs

By Shannon Roxborough on December 22, 2010

Even as the U.S. Senate fails to act on long-term clean-energy policy and federal money for renewables dries up, energy-hungry India is on pace to meet its commitment to add 1.1 gigawatts of solar power to the national grid by 2013, part of a greater goal of achieving 20 gigawatts of solar capacity by 2022, according to an Indian official.

Speaking at a solar conference, Deepak Gupta, the country's Renewable Energy Secretary, said the government has 184 megawatt of solar projects in the pipeline—scheduled to be completed by September 2011—and expects to receive bids for another 620 megawatts of projects in the foreseeable future.

Although solar energy still accounts for a small percentage of the South Asian nation's power portfolio (coal-fired generation provides more than half of domestic power supply), India has been ramping up solar production to keep pace with its fast-growing economy.

The news comes at a time when India and its neighbor China are planning to sign economic and trade agreements pacts that will increase cooperation in renewable energy, finance and infrastructure.

Over the last few years, the two countries have jointly accounted for the lion's share of global energy demand. India has stepped up it pursuit of alternatives to help slash carbon emissions, ease power shortages and bring electricity to millions of its rural poor.


Yes. India has ambitious plans to tap solar energy

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Wed, 2010-12-22 06:07.

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India has drawn ambitious plan to harness Solar Energy.

Here is a detailed account on the current status and future plans in India in harnessing Solar Energy:

Characteristics of solar energy in India, Prakash Singh, solar mnre, April 17, 2010, in Solar and Wind, by admin :

India is both densely populated and has high solar insulation, providing a combination ideal for solar energy in India. Much the country does not have an electrical outlet, so that one of the first applications of solar energy has been to pump water, to begin replacing India four to five million water running diesel pumps, each consumes about 3.5 kilowatts, and the lighting outside the network. Some major projects have been proposed, and one kilometers 35,000 m² of Thar desert area is set aside for solar energy projects, enough to generate 700 to 2100 GW.

In July 2009, India gave out a plan of 19 billion U.S. dollars to produce 20 GW of solar energy by 2020. Under the plan, solar energy equipment and applications would be mandatory in all government buildings, including hospitals and hotels.
November 18, 2009, it was reported that India is ready to launch its Solar Mission as part National Action Plan on Climate Change, with plans to generate 1,000 MW in 2013.

Annual isolation:

With about 300 clear days of sunshine per year, theoretician of India of receipt of solar energy, only its land area is about 5 PWH / year. The average daily solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh / m 2 with about 2,300-3,200 hours of sunshine a year, depending on location. This is much more than the current energy total. For example, assuming a 10% conversion efficiency of photovoltaic modules, there is still a thousand times greater than the likely electricity demand in India 2015.

Current status:

Installed capacity:

The amount of solar energy produced in India is only 0.4% compared to other energy resources. The grid interactive solar power from June 2007, only 2.12 MW. solar energy funded by the Government of India represents only about 6.4 megawatt-years of power since 2005. However, from October 2009, India is currently the number one, along with States U.S. in terms of generation of solar energy potential capacity.

However unavailable:

Solar power is currently prohibitive due to high initial costs of implementation. To build a thriving solar market, the technology has to be competitively cheaper – ie cost parity achieving energy with fossil or nuclear. India depends heavily on coal and foreign oil – a phenomenon that will continue until non-fossil / Renewable energy technology is economically viable in the country. The cost of production ranges from Rs 15 to 30 rupees per unit compared to around Rs 2-6 Rs per unit conventional thermal energy.

Government policy:

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Energy (MNRE) have launched incentive schemes – such as grants, soft loans, concessional duty on imports of raw materials, tax exemption especially on certain devices / systems, etc – in Europe and East Asia.

Thar Desert:

In 1996, Amoco / Enron Solar Power Development plans to build a 50 MW plant in the solar photovoltaic Thar desert near Jaisalmer in Rajasthan state. Two other projects were proposed, a 50 MW photovoltaic and the other a 200 MW solar chimney. None has been completed. The government of Rajasthan, however, has reserved one kilometers 35.000 m² Thar desert area for energy solar. Solar Astonfield Rajasthan Pvt Ltd, promoted by Astonfield Group of Companies has begun to develop the first solar photovoltaic power project in Rajasthan, which was commissioned in early 2010.

PV manufacture in India:

Current PV manufacturing in India includes:
• Titan Energy Systems Ltd, Hyderabad
• SHARP (JAPAN). BP-Tata joint venture.
• Moser Baer signed for a plant-silicon thin film provided by Applied Materials. Solar SA Semiconductor in Madrid, Madrid. Green SA of brilliance. Ltd.
• Limited TELE ICOMM
Waaree Energy Ltd. • Surat, Gujarat, India
• Systems KCK Energy
• Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd., Jalgaon, Maharashtra

Solar engineering education:
The Australian government has awarded UNSW U.S. $ 5.2 million to train engineers next-generation solar energy in the Asia-Pacific nations, particularly India and China, as part of the Association Asia-Pacific Development and Climate (APP). Some programs are designed to address rural development for solar use.


Electrification Rural

Lack of electricity infrastructure is a major obstacle in the development of rural India. network system in India is considerably less developed, with the main sections of the population still survives outside the network. From 2004 there are about 80,000 non-electrified villages in the country. Of these people, 18,000 could not be electrified through conventional grid extension. A target for electrification of 5,000 villages as set for the Tenth National Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). As in 2004, more than 2,700 towns and villages had been electrified mainly using SPV systems. Developments in technology are seen as cheap solar a possible alternative that allows an electrical infrastructure comprises a network of local groups network with distributed generation of electricity. That could allow avoid, or at least alleviate the need to install expensive, and loss, long distance, centralized systems of energy supply and yet bring cheap electricity to the masses.

Support to agriculture:

Solar Water Pumping System:

Solar water pumping systems are used for irrigation and drinking water. Most pumps are equipped with an engine 200-3,000 watts that are fed with 1,800 Wp PV array which can generate about 140,000 gallons of water per day from a height of 10 meters. At September 30, 2006, a total of 7.068 systems, solar water pumping have been installed.

Harvest processing:

Solar dryers are used to dry the crop before storage.


Another example is the cost of energy in temperature control – a factor of regional influence of full energy intensity. With the cooling load demand is nearly in phase with the intensity of the sun, the cooling of intense solar radiation can be an attractive option for energy-economic in the subcontinent.

Challenges and limitations:

Land Scarcity:

For the availability of land ca-pita is a scarce resource in India. Dedication Earth's surface for unique installation of solar cells would have to compete with other needs that require land. The amount of land required for solar power plants level of public services – currently about 1 km ² for every 20-60 megawatts (MW) generated – could bring pressure on available land resources in India. The best architecture for most of India would be a highly distributed, individual rooftop generation systems energy, all connected through a local network. However, build the infrastructure – which does not enjoy economies of scale in the mass potential utility-scale solar panel display – requires the market price of the deployment of solar technology to significantly reduce the size to attract individual and family consumption average home. That could be possible in the future, since PV is expected to continue current cost reductions for the coming decades and being able to compete with fossil fuels.

Slow progress:

While the world has made significant progress in the production of photovoltaic cells based on monocrystalline silicon, India has lived up to achieve the momentum around the world. India is in 7th place worldwide in solar photovoltaics (PV) Cell production and 9th place in the solar thermal systems with nations like Japan, Europe, China and the U.S. currently ranked far ahead. Globally, solar energy is the fastest source increasing energy (albeit from a very small base) with an average annual growth of 35%, as seen in recent years.

Latent Potential:

Think-Tanks have recommended that India should adopt a policy of development of solar energy as a key component of the renewable energy mix, as being a densely populated region in the tropical sun, the subcontinent has the ideal combination of high isolation both solar and a large potential consumer base density. In one scenario, India could not only curb their carbon emissions in the long term, but do so without compromising its economic growth potential, with resources renewable solar energy becoming the backbone of the Indian economy in 2050”.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Emerging, Finance

Clean Energy Surges in Central America

By Shannon Roxborough on December 15, 2010

Although Central America has limited conventional energy resources and large numbers of rural poor still not connected to the grid, rising energy demand is, surprisingly, making the region less reliant on oil imports. Instead, it is turning to renewables.

According to a report by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), a United Nations agency tasked with promoting regional economic and social development, 61% of the electricity generated in the region came from clean sources last year. The nation-by-nation breakdown of renewable use is impressive: Costa Rica (95.1%), El Salvador (56.8%), Panama (56.6%), Guatemala (53.2%), Honduras (45.5%) and Nicaragua (29.9%).

And there's more to come. In power-hungry Nicaragua, a country that has struggled with supply problems in the past, wind power is helping provide energy security; volcano-dotted Guatemala is offering tax breaks to spawn more geothermal power plants; Honduras is currently building the region's largest wind farm; and Costa Rica, which aims to be 100% renewable, is stepping up is courtship of wind farm developers.

Spain will likely be a big beneficiary of Central America's move toward renewable energy. Spanish companies and investors are pursuing projects throughout the region. And last month, the Costa Rican government sent a delegation to the European country to meet with green industry leaders.

Some experts estimate that Costa Rica alone has the potential to generate as much as 31,000 megawatts of renewable-based energy.


Yes. Central America can harvest Renewables for Progress

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2010-12-19 05:42.

Yes. Central America has rich Renewable Energy sources. Already Brazil is leading in Ethanol production. Argentina has excellent Wind regime. According to one estimate the Wind Potential in Argentina is about 500,000MW.In Columbia small Windmills for water pumping are in much use.

Here is an interesting analysis on the subject:

How is the use of renewable energy projected to evolve?(Source: GreenFacts)

Renewable Energy Consumption

Renewable energy consists of energy produced and/or derived from sources that can be renewed indefinitely, such as hydro-, solar and wind power, or sustainably produced, such as biomass. Notwithstanding the forecast dominance of fossil fuels, the use of renewable sources of energy is expected to expand. Based on United States Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections, marketed renewables will grow over the next decades at an annual rate of around 1.9 percent. The greatest absolute increases are expected in North America, Asian developing countries and Central and South America .Annual growth rates in consumption of renewables are expected to be highest in the Near East, Asian developing countries and Central and South America .In Asian developing countries, the trend is driven more by increased energy consumption than a particular focus on renewables as in Central and South America.

Percentage of renewable energy

In most of the world’s regions, the proportion of energy from marketed renewable sources is expected to increase in the coming years. By far the greatest overall proportion of renewable energy consumption is in Central and South America, where economically competitive non-fossil fuel sources of energy are already well established (Box 2). These figures do not take into account the recent long-term energy strategy of the European Union (EU), which proposes that by 2020, EU consumption of renewables will increase to 20 percent of total energy use; the proportion of biofuels used in transport will increase to 10 percent; and EU greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced to 20 percent below 1990 levels (European Union, 2007).

Higher fossil fuel prices and government policies and programmes in support of the development of alternative energy will be factors in the competitiveness of renewable energy sources. In spite of national and international efforts, however, forecasts do not show the global share of renewable energy increasing significantly. A minor expansion from 7.4 to 7.6 percent is all that is expected by 2030 (EIA, 2007).

The World Alternative Policy Scenario presented in the World Energy Outlook 2006 (IEA, 2006) shows how the global energy market could evolve if countries around the world were to adopt policies and measures currently under consideration for reducing carbon dioxide emissions and improving energy supply security. In the scenario, the share of renewables in global energy consumption remains largely unchanged while the share of traditional biomass falls. Hydropower production will grow but its share will remain stable, while the shares of other renewables (including geothermal, solar and wind) will increase most rapidly, but from such a low base that they will remain the smallest component of renewable energy in 2030.

With the inclusion of traditional biomass, heating and cooking will remain the principal uses of renewable fuels over the next 25 years. The power sector, however, is expected to lead the global increase in renewable energy consumption (IEA, 2004). This sector accounted for a quarter of global renewable energy consumption in 2002, but its share is projected to rise to 38 percent by 2030. Currently, less than 1 percent of fuels used for transport are renewable. According to projections, this share will rise to 3 percent over the next 25 years. The overall impact of these changes on global energy consumption will be relatively small although the impact on deforestation and food security may be considerable.

World renewable energy consumption by region

Renewable energy including traditional biomass makes up a greater proportion of total energy supplies in developing than in developed countries. About three-quarters of renewable energy are consumed in developing countries, where most renewable energy production is based on the use of traditional biomass and hydropower. Industrialized countries account for 23 percent of the total renewable energy consumed worldwide, and transition economies for 3 percent .

The two regions where renewable energy is the most significant are Africa and Latin America. In Africa, this is largely due to consumption of woodfuel for heating and cooking. In Latin America, it is due to the high use of renewables in Brazil, where 45 percent of all energy consumed is based on renewables – hydropower, wood, and sugar-cane ethanol.

Biofuel use is increasing in most of the G8 + 5 countries, which consume the largest amounts of energy in the world, with the notable exception of the Russian Federation where the availability of fossil fuels is increasing. In absolute terms, the United States, China and India consume by far the largest quantities of biofuels .

Total primary energy supply from biofuels for G8+5 countries

Bioenergy increased as a percentage of total energy use between 2000 and 2005 in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, the United States and Brazil, all of which provided economic incentives for bioenergy consumption. However, the relative use of biofuels declined in China and India where high rates of economic growth outpaced the impacts of rising fossil fuel prices.

Percentage primary energy supply from bioenergy

Biofuels for transport in Brazil

Worldwide, only about 1 percent of the consumption of transport fuels comes from liquid biofuels. Brazil is a notable exception to this average. During the first global oil crisis in 1975, Brazil launched a national biofuel programme leading to the large- scale production of ethanol from domestic sugar supplies. More than 90 percent of all cars produced and sold in Brazil are “flex”, that is equipped with a motor that can run on ethanol, petrol or mixtures. Brazil has recently launched a global campaign to promote biofuels as a viable alternative to fossil fuels for transport.

In Brazil, biofuel from sugar cane sources is more competitive than petrol, when the oil price is above US$35 per barrel. Bioethanol from corn in the United States is, by comparison, competitive at an oil price of US$55 per barrel, and bioethanol in the European Union requires an oil price of US$75 to $100 per barrel to be competitive (Worldwatch Institute, 2007).

The success of biofuels in Brazil is largely a result of the high productivity of sugar cane and the suitability of the feedstock for efficient conversion to ethanol. Approximately 90 000 ha of sugar-cane plantations are established every year, mostly in the southern parts of the country (FAO, 2007c). Brazil is expected to continue to bethe major biofuels exporter worldwide (Global Insight, 2007)

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India


Finance, Transportation

Hydrogen Vehicles In Hawaii by 2015

Submitted by eBoom Staff on December 9, 2010

Government agencies, universities and private companies have joined the effort to make hydrogen fueled vehicles a reality in Hawaii by 2015.

Ten partners have joined an initiative called the Hawaii Hydrogen Initiative (H2I) which has set goals to add hydrogen to Hawaii's renewable and sustainable energy portfolio. By 2015, H2I plans to install 20-25 hydrogen fueling stations on Oahu, making hydrogen available to the island's one million residents.

H2I, is based, in part, on a partnership between The Power Company (TPC) and General Motors. According to the press release, TPC, one of Hawaii's largest energy companies, "produces enough hydrogen to power up to 10,000 fuel cell vehicles and has the capacity to produce much more hydrogen." GM claims to be a leader in hydrogen powered vehicle development, stating it holds "the world's largest fuel cell demonstration fleet – more than 100 vehicles."

The joining partners, which include the state's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, U.S. Pacific Air Forces and the University of CaliforniaIrvine, will help with the tricky task of building a plausible and cost effective infrastructure to produce and deliver the hydrogen.

"Hawaii is on the cutting edge of developing the infrastructure for hydrogen-powered vehicles and adopting the latest clean energy technologies to move our islands toward energy independence and sustainability," said Richard Lim, acting director, state Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism.

"H2I is a unique, innovative partnership that has brought together public, private and community partners to improve the quality of life for our citizens and become a worldwide model."


Hydrogen is the Future Energy Carrier

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2010-12-12 09:35.

Hydrogen is the future ENERGY CARRIER. Many countries are going in for Hydrogen production. Fuel Cells and Hydrogen make a perfect combination for Energy Storage. Here is an interesting analysis on the subject.

Use of Hydrogen Grows To Fuel Vehicles, Produce Electricity, Hundreds of hydrogen cars are on world’s roads; early applications growing, By Cheryl Pellerin,4 March 2008(Source:

Washington -- As a fuel source and an energy carrier, hydrogen -- the most abundant element in the universe -- is beginning to move from science fiction and basic research to the world’s warehouses, airports, cell phone towers and highways.

Hydrogen is the most versatile of renewable energy resources -- a universal fuel that can be burned in an engine or used in a fuel cell to power vehicles, buildings and homes, utility power plants and anything else that uses electrical energy.

When burned in an engine, hydrogen is about 30 percent more efficient than gasoline. When a fuel cell is used to power a vehicle, the fuel cell is 100 percent to 200 percent more efficient than gasoline. Hydrogen engines do not emit carbon dioxide, and the only byproduct of fuel cells is clean water.

In a fuel cell, hydrogen is an energy carrier rather than a fuel. An energy carrier is a substance or system that moves energy in usable form from one place to another. Electricity, the best-known energy carrier, moves the energy stored in coal, uranium and other sources from power plants to homes and businesses.

“Hydrogen is an excellent enabler for renewable energy technologies,” Patrick Serfass, president of the National Hydrogen Association, told “It works with fossil technologies, nuclear, ethanol, biomass -- all the alternative fuels. It works well with hybrid-vehicle technologies and with batteries and plug-ins.”

Fuel cells can be used to make up for the intermittent nature of wind and solar power, for example, and to extend the limited range of batteries in electric vehicles.


Hydrogen gas is plentiful on Earth but it is found only in compound form with other elements -- two hydrogen atoms combined with one oxygen atom is water (H20), and hydrogen combined with carbon forms compounds (hydrocarbons) like methane, coal and petroleum. Scientists around the world are addressing this and other technology barriers.

“The three major challenges for producing hydrogen,” George Sverdrup, a government researcher, told, “are how to produce hydrogen at a cost of $2 to $3 per equivalent gallon of gasoline; for storage, it’s how to store enough hydrogen on board a vehicle to economically allow a 300-mile [483-kilometer] driving range; and for fuel cells, it’s how to get them to the point where they’re cost competitive with gasoline engines and as durable.” Sverdrup is technology manager for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program.

Hydrogen can be produced chemically from hydrocarbon fossil fuels or from a range of renewable sources. But electricity produced from fossil-fuel hydrogen is not renewable and generates greenhouse gas emissions.

At NREL, the hydrogen work focuses on producing the element from renewable energy sources for hydrogen production and delivery, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, technology validation (testing systems in a commercial environment), safety, codes and standards, and analysis.

For example, for a process called electrolysis (running an electrical current through water to break apart the hydrogen and oxygen atoms), NREL scientists are working on producing hydrogen from water using sunlight, biomass, wind and biological sources like algae and bacteria.

Hydrogen storage is one of the main hurdles to commercialization, and NREL is one of three national centers of excellence in the United States working on the problem using different approaches.

“Hydrogen has tremendous promise for a sustainable energy future as a key element of a mix of fuels,” Sverdrup said. “There are still technical hurdles to be overcome, but we have fine scientists and engineers in the United States and we’re working on the problem.”


Hundreds of hydrogen cars are on the road around the world, at least three manufacturers -- BMW, Honda and General Motors -- are rolling out their first vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers are putting hydrogen vehicles into the hands of consumers for extended test drives. The cars have hydrogen engines or run on electricity from fuel cells.

According to DOE, the system cost for automotive fuel cells has gone from $275 per kilowatt in 2002 to $95 per kilowatt in 2008 and is projected to be $60 per kilowatt in 2009. The target is $30 by 2015. The estimated cost for a gasoline engine is about $50 per kilowatt, Serfass said.

BMW’s Hydrogen 7 is the world’s first production-quality vehicle, and Honda is leasing its FCX Clarity hydrogen fuel-cell sedan to a limited number of drivers in southern California this summer -- a three-year, $600-per-month lease in an area that has operating hydrogen fueling stations and participating auto maintenance facilities.

In the United States, DOE’s National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration, which has about 70 hydrogen cars on the road, is a government-industry partnership created to test, demonstrate and validate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and fueling stations.

Many countries have strong hydrogen vehicle programs, Serfass said, including the United States, Canada and countries in Asia and Europe.

DOE, car manufacturers and the National Hydrogen Association say consumers can expect to see hydrogen vehicles in auto showrooms by 2020, “but at least a few auto manufacturers have said that they will have a production-ready hydrogen vehicle as early as 2012,” he added.

Early and growing applications for fuel cells that already are providing cost savings in some markets include back-up emergency power for cell phone towers and emergency facilities, forklifts or materials-handling trucks, airport vehicles of all kinds, and hydrogen injection systems for trucks that can save 10 percent of fuel costs.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Efficiency, Finance

Report Says LED Lighting Market Poised to Explode

Submitted by eBoom Staff on December 2, 2010

A new study conducted by Groom Energy and Greentech Media Research shows the LED lighting industry is set for rapid growth over the next four years as it makes its ascent to the perch of the lighting market

The study, entitled Enterprise LED Lighting Research Report, states the LED market will grow 30% in 2011, and will see its global revenue to reach US$1 billion by 2014, a three fold increase from 2010's revenue of US$330 million. According to the report the four companies that the LED industry are: Cree, Philips, Lighting Science Group, and BetaLED.

The industrial and commercial sectors are expected to led the transition away from compact fluorescent and incandescent lighting, with the residential sector catching on later.

The study identifies three trends that are generating the rapid growth for LED lighting:

  1. Recent technological advancements allow for more cost-effective designs of LED bulbs.
  2. New financial incentives from utility companies for customers that make the lighting switch.
  3. An increased desire of building owners to retrofit their properties so they operate more efficiently and for less money.


LED lighting is the future option

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Fri, 2010-12-03 19:04.

YES. LED lighting has several advantages compared to other options. It is the future lighting.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


New Report Estimates 980 Gigawatts of Solar Energy Worldwide by 2020

Submitted by eBoom Staff on December 3, 2010

The Solar Energy Industries Association has released a report that predicts global solar energy capacity to reach 980 GW by 2020.

Released as part of United Nations talks on climate change in Cancun, Mexico, the report says that the potential growth of solar energy is in the hands of governments as they seek to reduce greenhouse emissions and leave behind dependence on fossil fuels.

According Bloomberg, the report states that in the next ten years solar projects will cut carbon emissions by 570 million tons, the "equivalent of shutting down 100 coal-fueled power plants."

The solar industry will use this report to make a case for governments to increase solar incentives as they consider how to curb climate change. In the U.S. alone, investing in solar could pay huge divends both environmentally and financially. The report states 139 GW of U.S. solar power generation would "add 683,0000 jobs and help reduce the cost of electricity to $2.32 a watt from $5.71 today."

“The capital needed to manufacture that much capacity is staggering,” said Nancy Hartsoch, vice president of marketing at SolFocus Inc., a Palo Alto, California-based maker of concentrating photovoltaic panels. “And because solar hasn’t reached grid-parity in most regions, that kind of deployment would require stronger policies than we’ve got in place now.”


Solar Energy has great future

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Fri, 2010-12-03 19:14.

With constant research in improving the efficiency of solar cells and bulk production, the cost of generation of solar energy will come down which results in explosion of solar energy around the globe.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India



Logitech Releases Solar Powered Keyboard

Submitted by eBoom Staff on November 2, 2010

Logitech (NASDAQ:LOGI) has announced it will release of the company's first solar powered wireless keyboard this month.

According to the press release, the Logitech Wireless Solar Keyboard K750 will power itself whenever and wherever there is light, even indoors. The company claims the keyboard can function in total darkness for up to three months.

With the included solar power application to monitor the battery level, the 1/3 inch thick, 100 percent recyclable, PVC-free keyboard will be available in European and U.S. markets at a suggested retail price of US$79.99.

"The Logitech Wireless Solar Keyboard K750 is the next big innovation in keyboard technology,” said Denis Pavillard, vice president of product marketing for Logitech’s keyboards and desktops.

Image Credit: Logitech


Good Innovation - I like it

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sat, 2010-11-06 23:42.

I like it. Good Innovation.

Power cuts are often in developing countries. The UPS helps to see the Monitor but not the KEYBOARD. I suggest an LED can be fixed to the KEYBOARD so that during power failure, one can read the letters on the KEY BOARD.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Finance, Wind

US Offshore Wind Capacity Estimated at over 4,000 Gigawatts

By Alison Pruitt on September 13, 2010

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently released a report estimating the nation’s off shore wind energy potential at 4,150 gigawatts.

A previous report from 2008 had estimated the total U.S. wind capacity at 1,010 gigawatts. NREL based their estimate on high-resolution maps that predict annual average wind speeds and demonstrate the energy potential of offshore wind resources.

The study examined offshore areas within 50 nautical miles off the U.S. coast where average annual wind speeds are approximately 16 miles per hour at a height of 295 feet. However, the study does not take into account that some offshore areas may be off-limits to energy development for environmental or technological reasons.

The report developed through various stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation information was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. NREL does expect to update the wind power capacity information in future reports as new data becomes available.

In order to create the report, NREL developed a database using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques that includes offshore wind resource characteristics such as wind speed, water depth, and distance from shore. The database allowed NREL researchers to estimate wind resources under several different scenarios.

In the future, the database may be expanded to include other important characteristics such as wave power density, ocean currents, and other factors that influence the design of offshore wind turbines.


Yes. US can be leader in Offshore Wind Farms

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Sun, 2010-11-07 00:25.

The future lies in Offshore Wind Farms. Yes. US can be leader in this field.

Global Wind Energy Outlook 2010,Greenpeace and Global Wind Energy Council,October 2010) Presents deeper insight into Wind Energy outlook for US.

“The past decade has seen enormous growth in the US wind power. Back in 2000, slightly more than 2.5 GW had been installed. By the end of 2009, that had risen to a world-leading installed capacity of more than 35 GW.

However, that growth has never been steady. For reasons that often seem to have more to do with Washington politics than political will, national policy has been short-term and inconsistent, with the industry (especially in the first five years of the decade) either speeding to catch the green light, or braking hard. Although the last few years have seen more stability, as this report is being written (late July 2010) the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) has announced that wind power installations in the first half of
2010 (1239 MW) have dropped by 71% compared with the same period in 2009 (in total, 2009 saw the addition of a massive 10 GW of new wind) and by 57% compared with the first half of 2008. However, despite a strong pipeline and a slight increase in turbine orders in the second quarter, 2010 will continue to be affected by the low level of orders in the immediate aftermath of the economic crisis as well as a drop in electricity demand.

Wind power now generates close to 2% of US electricity needs, but experts estimate that with the right policies in place, the potential is much greater. And with the US Energy Information Administration calculating that the country needs the addition of 89 GW of new power generating capacity by 2030, largely to replace ageing power plants, wind can make a powerful contribution.

In 2008, the US Department of Energy released a groundbreaking report, finding that wind power could provide 20% of US electricity by 2030.2 A more recent analysis of wind integration in the Eastern region of the country drew similar conclusions, while a new assessment from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory published in February 2010 showed that onshore US wind resources could generate nearly 37 million GWh annually, more than nine times current total US electricity consumption.

Thirty-six US states now have utility-scale wind farms, and 14 of these have over 1 GW in operation. Texas leads, with over 9 GW of wind power, of which 2.3 GW were new installations in 2009 (including the world’s largest wind farm, the 627-turbine, 781.5 MW Roscoe wind farm). Iowa, California, Washington state and Minnesota follow in terms of installed capacity, with Iowa receiving 14% of its 2009 electricity consumption from wind.

The US wind market has had two policy stimuli for some years. At the national level there has been a Production Tax Credit (with erratic terms/extensions); while a growing number of states followed the Texan example by introducing a state Renewable Energy Standard (RES), requiring a certain percentage of power in the state to come from renewable sources (with wind generally providing the majority of this). Twenty-eight states currently operate an RES (sometimes known as an RPS).

In February 2009 a package of measures were introduced as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: extension of the PTC to 2012; an option to receive an investment credit tax instead of the PTC ; tax credits for new wind manufacturing facilities; a 6 billion USD renewable energy loan guarantee programme. Together these were very beneficial in maintaining momentum in the sector during the 2008–2009 economic downturn.

However, to sustain the growth over a longer period, increase wind energy manufacturing jobs, and solidify wind’s place in the US energy market, the US wind industry is seeking a national renewable energy standard (RES). This would stimulate utilities to buy wind power and conclude power purchase agreements, which are currently difficult to obtain, due to the drop in overall electricity demand, lower natural gas prices, and the absence of a clear national renewable energy policy. There is still some chance that such a measure could be adopted before the end of 2010.”

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Emerging, Finance

Chinese Renewables Soar as U.S. Market Stalls

By Shannon Roxborough on November 11, 2010

China, with a fast-prospering population of 1.3 billion and one of the world's most active industrial machines, is increasingly turning to clean energy to meet its ever-expanding power needs—its energy consumption has doubled since 2000.

And China is winning the competitive battle with the U.S. Even as American lawmakers drag their feet with legislation and the domestic wind energy industry struggles with its worst performance since 2007, the Chinese continue to implement ambitious government policies and to pour money into alternative energy growth, having funneled as much as US$160 billion into projects between 2007 and 2010.

So despite being the planet's second-largest oil consumer after the U.S., China will become the "undisputed global leader in clean energy within the next two years" if it continues at its current pace of growth, according to recent report by the Worldwatch Institute.

China, which last year surpassed the U.S. to become the world's largest wind power market, has doubled its wind capacity every year since 2005. On the solar front, Chinese companies collectively control 40% of the global photovoltaic market. It also leads the world in the manufacture of solar water heaters and is responsible for eight out of every 10 units installed globally.

The Asian giant plans to cut carbon emissions by up to 45% by 2020 and officials in Beijing say renewables could make up one-fifth of the nation's total energy consumption by that same year, and as much as 45% by 2050.

Renewable Energy Boom in China

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2010-11-11 05:29.

New energy and renewable energy accounted for nine percent in China's energy structure in 2008, while coal took up 69 percent and oil and natural gas 22 percent, according to the National Bureau of Statistics.

China's new energy and renewable energy, including hydropower, nuclear power, wind power and solar power, have boomed in recent years.

The country's installed capacity of hydropower topped 170 million kw in 2008, the biggest in the world. Hydropower percentage in overall energy structure soared from one percent in 1949 to 7.4 percent in 2008.

China reported 8.85 million kw of nuclear power installed capacity in use. The country now has three nuclear power stations: Qinshan in Zhejiang province, Dayawan in Guangdong province and Tianwan in Jiangsu province.

Wind power installed capacity topped 12.21 million kw, ranking the fourth in the world.

China's solar power sector also made remarkable progresses. The sector produced more than 6,000 tonnes of polycrystalline silicion (a key material in producing solar power) and 2 million kw of solar photovoltaic cells in 2008.

(Source: Xinhua 2009-10-10 China Climate Change Info-Net)

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP), India


Has China Won the Clean Tech Race?
By Mitchell Anderson on November 3, 2010

China is emerging as the clear leader in the race for global dominance in the clean tech sector according to a report from the World Watch Institute (WWI). Not only has Beijing pulled ahead of the United States in renewable capacity and investment, this week's midterm election results will only make it harder for the U.S. to catch up.
“Governments and industries around the world are now struggling to keep pace with China,” said Worldwatch President Christopher Flavin. “China is succeeding precisely where the United States is failing – in implementing the ambitious policies and making the sustained investment that is needed to spur growth in clean energy. If China keeps on its current pace, it will be the undisputed global leader in clean energy within the next two years.”
In the last State of the Union address, President Obama was clear about the importance of positioning America as a clean tech powerhouse:
“China is not waiting to revamp its economy. Germany is not waiting. India is not waiting. These nations, they're not standing still. These nations aren't playing for second place… They're making serious investments in clean energy because they want those jobs… The nation that leads the clean energy economy will be the nation that leads the global economy. And America must be that nation.”
It is beoming increasingly clear that America is not that nation.
According to WWI:
In 2009, China surpassed the United States to become the world’s largest market for wind power, housing nearly one-third of the total installed capacity.
China’s newly added wind power capacity has doubled every year for the past four years. The country added 13.8 gigawatts (GW) of new capacity in 2009.
In 2009, China’s solar photovoltaic (PV) companies held 40 percent of the global market, with most production being exported to Europe. More than 20 Chinese solar PV companies have successfully engaged in initial public offerings (IPOs), and five of these rank in the world’s top 10 in solar PV production.
While the Beijing is full steam ahead, Washington may have just gone into reverse. Obama’s climate bill has been stalled for months even before losing control of Congress in this week’s midterm elections. The new batch of lawmakers descending on D.C. have made no bones about their intent to undo Obama’s agenda.
Observers worry that important Congressional positions such as the chair of the House Energy and Commerce committee may soon be occupied by the likes of Joe Barton of Texas or Fred Upton of Michigan – both of who voted against clean energy legislation.
Barton embarrassed even some of his Republican colleagues when he apologized to BP CEO Tony Hayward during his testimony to Congress after the Gulf oil spill. Upton committed that he would eliminate the House select committee on climate change, calling it a “wasteful committee.’’
This looming partisan gridlock is music to the ears of the leadership in Beijing. Given their impressive advantages of cheap labor, an educated workforce and an artificially low currency, China was already pulling ahead. After this week’s election results, the U.S. may be in danger of dropping out of the clean tech race altogether.
Yes, China is fast emerging as Clean Tech Leader

Submitted by a_jagadeesh2@ya... on Thu, 2010-11-04 23:51.

Yes. China is fast emerging as the champion of Clean Tech Race.

Here are interesting points on the subject:

“China Still Holds Commanding Lead in Global Clean Tech Race”, by GreenBiz Staff (March 16, 2010, )

“But while China is leading the global clean tech race, the competition isn't over, according to research firm Clean Edge.

"It's too early to declare China the de facto winner," Clean Edge Co-Founder and Managing Director Ron Pernick said during a teleconference Tuesday launching the 2010 Clean Energy Trends report. (Full disclosure: Executive Editor Joel Makower is a co-founder of Clean Edge.)
The annual examination of the state of global clean energy found the U.S., Europe, Japan, China and other parts of Asia battling to dominate the various clean energy sectors, which are now considered to be among the leading forces driving a global economic recovery.

The solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind power industries employ more than 830,000 people worldwide directly and indirectly, and up to 3.3 million by 2019, the report found.
Worldwide revenue of (PV), wind power and biofuels expanded 11.4 percent in 2009 to $139.1 billion, despite the economic recession. A year ago, the firm estimated revenue would remain flat in 2009, or even decline. Clean Edge predicts revenue for PV, wind and biofuels will grow to $325.9 billion within 10 years.

Clean energy investments dipped in 2009, but were tempered by a variety of government-funded initiatives. In the U.S., all venture capital investment declined in 2009, and clean energy projects were no exception. Roughly $2.2 billion in venture capital was directed toward clean energy in 2009, down from $3.2 billion the year before. This represents 12.5 percent of all venture capital -- the largest percentage on record.

The report identified five trends that will most heavily influence clean energy markets in the years ahead:

1. The emergence of carbon as a feedstock used for a range of products, including cement, plastics, asphalt and algae for biofuels.
2. The falling price of solar PV technology, which promises to redefine the industry. For the first time, PV revenues dipped in 2009 because of the rapidly falling costs -- from $7 on average peak watt in 2008 to $5.12 peak watt last year.
3. Biomass as an energy source grows in prominence, but it comes with a slew of issues related to land-use, emissions and economics.
4. Clean tech megaprojects entering the pipeline, but not without significant challenges. Abu Dhabi's Masdar City is delayed, for example, while China's Dongtan eco-city appears to be scrapped. Other mega projects, however, are gaining steam in China.
5. High Speed Rail plans accelerate, with the U.S. and China leading the way in new development. China plans to spend $300 billion connecting all the countries major cities by 2020; the new high speed rail added in the country over the five years will exceed the rest of the world combined.”

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

Solar Powered Desalination Could Help Global Water Shortages
With estimates of people without access to fresh water by 2025 nearing 3.5 billion, scientists are looking to desalination as a possible solution. Even better, two solar-powered desalination prototypes were recently tested making the solution not only beneficial to people without water, but those without access to electricity as well.
Desalination basically works by evaporating sea water, leaving the salt behind and providing access to potable water. For the most part, this process consumes a lot of energy and resources (read: fossil fuels) -- something that makes it relatively inaccessible for rural and poor communities, who require it the most.
Solar-powered desalination is not new in and of itself. Several installations have had varying degrees of success in Saudi Arabia and Australia. But improvements are always welcome.
There is also the problem of efficiency. How much fresh water can be produced from a specific surface area of machinery? In other words, how much land has to be used up to provide for a specific community and is this amount practical or beneficial?
The two solar-powered desalination prototypes appear to be addressing both concerns.
Specifics are a little meager, but an announcement from the Science for Environmental Policy branch of the European Commission [pdf] claims the new processes can evaporate ocean water at 40-50 degrees Celsius (considerably lower than current technologies), and provide upwards of 7.5 liters per day, per square meter of area used for evaporation.
Mind you, all testing was done on a small-scale. Large-scale installations would be required for proper analysis. This, of course, requires investments and subsidies.
The solar power prototypes indicate potential, however. The kind that looks to make use of renewable resources to benefit a growing number of those in need. One can look at the successes of solar-powered desalination in Africa [pdf] to see a glimpse of where this could go.
Solar is best technology for desalination
SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON TUE, 2010-10-26 10:50.
As sunshine is available in most of the countries especially in the SUN BELT countries, solar desalination will help to get pure water from sea.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP),India

The National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) has created tools, guidelines and comprehensive software to help American sports franchises reduce their carbon footprint, specifically the NRDC has been pushing solar power.
However, adoption of this technology has already started taking place without the NRDC's help. Stadiums have not only gone solar in sunny Los Angles, California and Phoenix, Arizona, but also in Seattle, Washington where it is cloudy 201 days a year and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania where January highs are 37 degrees Fahrenheit. The word is out and major American sporting centers across the country are going solar.
Although the move is predicated in environmental consciousness, with arenas like Staples Center reducing 10,000 tons of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases with its 1,727 solar panels, it is also financial. In Long Pond, Pennsylvania, Pocono Raceway just committed US$16 million to a 25 acre solar farm project that, according to track president Brandon Igdalsky, will rake in electricity savings of US$300,000 to US$500,000 a year.
Other US sports centers that have gone solar:
• The US Airways Center, Phoenix, AZ
• Fenway Park, Boston, MA
• Consol Energy Center, Pittsburgh, PA (the first LEED gold-certified arena in the NHL)
• Qwest Field, Seattle, WA
"The ecological footprint for professional sports is not gigantic, but the cultural iconic influence of sports is almost unparalleled," said Dr. Allen Hershkowitz of the NRDC. "We need to merge the culture of science with the culture of sports if we want to get the message out."
Stadiums are the best places to propagate Solar concept
SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON TUE, 2010-10-26 10:46.
Indeed Installing Solar panels on sport stadiums is a very good way of popularising the concept of Solar as SEEING IS BELIEVING and SHOW HOW of the KNOW HOW.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

A recent study by independent analyst firm Verdantix suggests that sustainability spending in the U.S. will more than double in four years.
The report predicts that such spending will go from the 2010 figure of US$28 billion to approximately US$60 billion in 2014. The study examined 1,833 U.S. companies with at least $1 billion in revenue annually – from every major industry.
Of these firms, sustainability spending will increase 11% between 2009 to 2010. The study predicts this rate of growth in sustainable business will continue for a 16% increase in 2011 and 24% in 2012 – with a 19% compound annual growth rate over four years.
Verdantix’s study incorporated spending in 20 sustainability categories, including emissions reduction, energy efficiency, cleantech innovation, and sustainability strategy. Growth rates for each company’s individual sustainability initiative varied from 4% to 50% between 2009 and 2014. The compound annual growth rate for investment in electric vehicles and their infrastructure is predicted to be 50%, growing to US$2.8 billion in 2014. The growth rate for smart grid technology will be 39%, and 34% for energy and carbon data management.
The study found that increased sustainability spending is motivated by improved economic growth, risk drivers, competitive dynamics, innovation diffusion, higher oil prices, state-level GHG regulations and renewable energy policies. Researchers examined all kinds of sustainability initiatives from energy efficiency to spending on strategy, risk, and brand.
“Expectations for US economic growth between 2010 and 2014 are in the 1% to 2.5% range. So the 19% growth rate for sustainable business spending makes sustainability an attractive market” stated Vanessa O’Connell, author of the report.
“Despite the positive growth rates this is a small market compared to the overall size of the US economy. Big variations in sustainability spending, program maturity and organizational design will make sales and marketing a challenge in the sustainability market over the next 2 years. From 2013 we expect to see more consistency in sustainable business strategies and more centralized budgets managed by Chief Sustainability Officers.”
US should be role model in Sustainability
SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON TUE, 2010-10-26 10:55.
US should be role model in Sustainability. When a big nation like US adopted Sustainability on a massive scale, other nations will follow suit.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

The BMW-brand Mini has unveiled a new 2-wheel zero-emission electric scooter today, which the automaker is hoping will become an "icon" of the next generation of environmentally friendly modes of transport.
Called the Mini-E scooter, Adrian van Hooydonk, Senior Vice President BMW Group Design told reporters at London Design Week that,
“The MINI Scooter E Concept represents an electric vision of the future as urban mobility takes a new direction by MINI. We are delighted to debut during the London Design Festival and pay homage to our British heritage while also marking a new era for MINI. The MINI Scooter E Concept is true to our brand values of distinctive design, intelligent functionality and customisation and builds further on these characteristics by combining driving pleasure with sustainable technology into the first two-wheel concept of its kind for MINI.... Here we are at the beginning of what could possibly become another icon."
The Mini E-Scooter E Concept will be officially unveiled at the Paris Motor Show that gets underway Oct. 2nd
Honda unveils zero-emission electric scooter
SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON SUN, 2010-10-24 14:49.
There are other companies which have come out with Zero Emission Electric Scooters.Here are details of Japan's Honda Motor company's prototype model of a new electric motorcycle called the "EV-neo":
Honda unveils zero-emission electric scooter, April 13, 2010 (PHYSORG.COM):
Japan's Honda Motor gives a demonstration of the company's prototype model of a new electric motorcycle called the "EV-neo" at the company's research and development center in Wako, suburban Tokyo. The company said it initially plans to target domestic business customers such as pizza delivery services.
The EV-neo is powered by a lithium-ion battery that matches the performance of a 50cc petrol engine, without the noise, and can travel 30 kilometres (19 miles) on a single charge at up to 30 kilometres per hour.
The battery can be rapid-charged up to 80 percent of capacity in 20 minutes, while a regular power socket charge would take about four hours, said the Japanese auto maker.
Honda promoted the scooter as "quiet and clean and contributing to creating a low-carbon society" as it unveiled a prototype of the two-wheeler at a research facility on the outskirts of Tokyo.
Honda plans to start leasing the scooter to Japanese companies from December, said a spokeswoman, without disclosing the price tag or production targets.
"The distance it can travel may not be satisfactory for personal use, but eventually we want to make it available for individual customers," she said.
No international sales plans were announced for the electric scooter, Honda's second since it released 200 units of an earlier model to Japanese business customers in 1994.
Japan's motor giants have recently emerged as global leaders in low and zero emission cars meant to reduce urban pollution and cut greenhouse gases blamed for global warming.
Toyota's Prius hybrid has been the top-selling car domestically for nearly a year, while Nissan is rolling out its Leaf electric car later this year, competing with Mitsubishi Motors' i-MiEV.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India

Currently generating all of its power by burning diesel, St. Lucia announced that the island country will soon be home to a solid-waste processor and power generator taking a significant step towards clean energy.
Island Green Energy and its partner Elementa Group, Inc. have been commissioned to build the US$50 million facility which will employ Elementa's non-incineration process using steam technology to convert solid waste into synthetic gas which in turn will be used for power generation.
According to The Standard, the facility, which could be completed by the spring of 2012, will convert 98 percent of the volume of waste to gas returning nothing to landfills, creating power for 6,000 homes and reducing the carbon footprint to the tune of 70,000 tonnes of greenhouse emissions a year.
Elementa executive vice-president Tom Hughes said, "We want it to be a real standalone project for the Caribbean, because a lot of nations are looking at this technology and they see it as a really viable way to help climate change."
Image Credit: D G Brown via Flickr
The Potential for Waste to Energy in India
I found the article interesting.Many countries are working on Waste to Energy projects. Here is the potential and scope for waste to energy India:
The Potential for Waste to Energy in India
India has drawn the world’s attention in recent years with its booming economic growth, large demographic of young, English-speaking workers, and its shift from an agricultural to a more service-oriented economy. The consequence of this economic success has been a massive increase in waste. This article discusses the problems involved in managing such quantities and the opportunities it presents, particularly with regard to Waste to Energy.
by Perinaz Bhada-Tata((WATE management world , Volume 11, Issue 5, September 2010):
A growing number of Indians are enjoying a new found ability to consume a vast number of goods and services that were previously either unavailable or unaffordable. From small electronic items, such as cell phones, to large consumer goods like refrigerators and cars, Indian consumption has been steadily increasing and shows no signs of abating anytime soon. Inevitably this has led to a rapid growth in the quantity and variety of MSW.
In most cities and towns in India, MSW is disposed of in an unregulated and unscientific manner in low-lying, open dumps on the outskirts of cities. Most dumps lack systems for leachate collection, landfill gas collection or monitoring, nor do they use inert materials to cover the waste. This results in ground and surface water contamination from runoff and lack of covering, air pollution caused by fires, toxic gases, and odour, and public health problems due to mosquitoes and scavenging animals.
In its 2009-10 Annual Report the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) estimated that approximately 55 million tonnes of MSW are generated in urban areas of India annually. It is estimated that the amount of waste generated in India will increase at a rate of approximately 1-1.33% annually.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) promulgated the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules in 2000 requiring municipalities across India adopt sustainable and environmentally sound ways of processing MSW, including incineration. In this regard, Waste to Energy (WtE) provides a solution towards complying with government regulations, and achieving integrated solid waste management.
WtE is perceived as a means to dispose MSW, produce energy, recover materials, and free up scarce land that would otherwise have been used for landfill.
The Indian Government considers WtE to be a renewable technology, and the MNRE has developed the National Master Plan for Development of WtE in India. The MNRE lists a number of technologies for energy recovery from urban and industrial wastes that “not only reduce the quantity but also improve the quality of waste to meet the required pollution control standards, besides generating a substantial quantity of energy”.
The MNRE estimates that the potential to generate power from MSW will more than double in the next ten years, while the potential from industrial waste is likely to increase by more than 50%.
While the Indian Government’s own figures would suggest that the cost of WtE is somewhat higher than other renewable sources, it should be kept in mind that WtE facilities serve a dual role of waste disposal and energy production. Although the cost per MW of capacity may be greater than other renewable sources, the benefits of waste management, energy and metals recovery, and reduction of GHG emissions need to be considered.
Considering WtE for Mumbai City
Mumbai, India’s financial capital and largest city, has been facing a solid waste management crisis for years. The infrastructure has been unable to keep pace with economic development and population growth. In order to move towards a sustainable future and achieve its goal of becoming a world-class city, Mumbai needs to adopt an integrated solid waste management approach.
The agency responsible for solid waste management in Mumbai is the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) and its private contractors. The 2009-10 budget of the SWMD is Rs.10.6 billion (US$228 million), and is expected to increase to Rs.15.5 billion ($334 million) in 2010-11.
The municipal corporation spends roughly Rs.1160 per tonne ($25/tonne) on collection, transport, and disposal of MSW. Collection and transport together constitute roughly 80% of the cost. In India, the average municipal expenditure on solid waste management is Rs.500 to Rs.1500 per tonne ($10 to $32 per tonne).
Suitability of WtE in Mumbai
The MSW collected in Mumbai consists of wet organics (primarily food waste), dry organics (straw and wood, etc.), inert materials (sand and soil), and recyclables (plastics, metal, glass and paper). Based on the composition of MSW, processing the waste in a WtE facility would reduce its volume by 96.74%, thus freeing up land that would otherwise have been used for landfills.
The chemical characteristics of MSW in Mumbai have been measured by two different studies, one by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) in 2005-06, and the other by MCGM around the same time.
The reported moisture content and heating value differs significantly between the two studies, however, the CPCB-NEERI study found that the heating value of MSW in Mumbai is sufficient for a WtE plant to operate without additional fuel. From an environmental standpoint, a WtE facility would be beneficial because it would prevent the formation of leachate that contaminates groundwater, reduce emissions of toxic pollutants from the burning of garbage, and prevent the production of two potent greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane.
Additionally, with space in urban areas at a premium WtE provides an effective way to reduce the volume of waste by approximately 90% and thereby lower the space needed for landfills.
There is an adage: One’s trash is somebody’s treasure’.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released a report which examines all the factors affecting the deployment of American offshore wind power.
The NREL’s report, "Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers," [pdf] analyzes national offshore wind resources and the industry’s potential job growth. It describes the technological challenges, economics, permitting processes, and possible risks and benefits of U.S. offshore wind power.
The report estimates the potential offshore wind resources could be worth more than 4,000 gigawatts. The NREL concludes that despite numerous challenges, research, policies, and market demand will permit a significant percentage of that potential to be effectively exploited. The report concluded that it was possible for wind to supply 20% of U.S. electricity by 2030 – and that 54 gigawatts of that could come from offshore wind. The U.S. has not yet constructed any offshore wind projects, but around 20 projects (worth over 2,000 MW in capacity) are being planned.
Twenty-six states have plenty of high winds off their coasts. In addition, there are appropriate wind resources near large urban areas with steadily growing demands, high electrical rates, and limited land on which to install new, land-based energy facilities. Offshore wind would be a boon to these coastal urban areas.
If the U.S. can construct 54 GW of offshore facilities, it would create an estimated US$200 billion in new economic activities and generate over 43,000 permanent, well-paying jobs in manufacturing, construction, engineering, operations and maintenance. NREL estimated that offshore wind could generate over 20 jobs for every megawatt produced in the U.S.
Offshore wind farms will expand in USA in leaps and bounds

SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON FRI, 2010-10-15 10:30.
DOE and NREL report concluded that it will be possible for wind to supply 20% The of U.S. electricity by 2030 – and that 54 gigawatts of that could come from offshore wind is a welcome sign for expansion of wind especially offshore wind farms.
The top five countries in Wind power are:
USA 35,161 MW, China 25806 MW, Germany 25777 MW and Spain 19149 MW and India11806 MW.

Off-Shore Wind Farms are expanding in leaps and bounds in UK,Denmark,Netherlands,Germany,Belgium etc.,
Offshore wind development zones are generally considered to be ten kilometers or more from land. Offshore wind turbines are less obtrusive than turbines on land, as their apparent size and noise is mitigated by distance. Because water has less surface roughness than land (especially deeper water), the average wind speed is usually considerably higher over open water. Capacity factors (utilisation rates) are considerably higher than for onshore and near shore locations.
Transporting large wind turbine components (tower sections, nacelles, and blades) is much easier over water than on land, because ships and barges can handle large loads more easily than trucks/lorries or trains. On land, large goods vehicles must negotiate bends on roadways, which fixes the maximum length of a wind turbine blade that can move from point to point on the road network; no such limitation exists for transport on open water.
Offshore wind turbines will probably continue to be the largest turbines in operation, since the high fixed costs of the installation are spread over more energy production, reducing the average cost. Turbine components (rotor blades, tower sections) can be transported by barge, making large parts easier to transport offshore than on land, where turn clearances and underpass clearances of available roads limit the size of turbine components that can be moved by truck. Similarly, large construction cranes are difficult to move to remote wind farms on land, but crane vessels easily move over water. Offshore wind farms tend to be quite large, often involving over 100 turbines.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

A new report from the Solar Energy Industries Association and GreenTech Media Research estimates that the United States' solar capacity will reach more than one gigawatt this year -- enough to power 200,000 homes.
The researchers concluded that increased photovoltaic and concentrated solar power projects will contribute to this milestone. They believe the projects are on the rise due to lower prices for modules and continued government support for solar projects.
The report estimates 945 megawatts of solar power capacity will be added this year; this is more than double the 441-megawatts installed last year. 91% of the installations will be photovoltaic, with the remaining 9% producing concentrated solar power.
California leads the nation in solar power installations this year, with 120-megawatts worth of projects. New Jersey, Arizona, and Florida round out the top four.
Shayle Kann, managing director of solar research for GreenTech Media, said, "Looking forward, the question isn't whether the U.S. (photovoltaic) market will grow, but how fast it will grow."
SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON SUN, 2010-10-17 19:49.
In an exciting report “America's Solar Energy Potential”, ENERGY INDEPENDENCE American energy brings out the scope and potential of Solar Energy in USA:
“Every hour, the sun radiates more energy onto the earth than the entire human population uses in one whole year.
The technology required to harness the power of the sun is available now. Solar power alone could provide all of the energy Americans consume — there is no shortage of solar energy. The following paragraphs will give you the information you need to prove this to yourself and others. You do not need advanced math skills to follow and perform the arithmetic examples shown below. Anyone who can balance a checkbook or calculate the total square feet of floor space in his or her home, and understand why an area measuring 10 yards by 10 yards equals 100 square yards, can perform the following arithmetic examples and prove that American energy independence could be achieved with solar energy alone.
Science tells us that every square meter of the earth's surface, when exposed to direct sunlight, receives about 1000 watts (1 kilowatt) of energy from the sun's light. Depending on the angle of sunlight, which changes with the time of day, and the geographical location [see map below], the power of the sun's light will be somewhat more or less than 1 kilowatt-hour per hour for every square meter of the earth's surface exposed to the sun.
On average, and particularly in the Sunbelt regions of the Southwestern United States, every square meter area exposed to direct sunlight will receive about 1 kilowatt-hour per hour of solar energy. However, scientists estimate that sunlight will provide useful solar energy for only about 6 to 7 hours per day because during the early hours and late hours of the day the angle of the sun's light is too low. So, for example, if the sun's light provides 6 productive hours of solar energy per day, then a square meter of land in direct sunlight will receive about 6 kilowatt-hours of solar energy during the course of a day.
Scientists like to measure things using the metric system. However, most Americans are unfamiliar with the metric system. (Europeans use the metric system.) It is easier for Americans to think in square feet and square yards because feet and yards are common lengths in the United States. So, for the sake of clarity and because this is written for an American audience, all measurements will be converted from meters to yards.
A meter is just a little longer than a yard (about 3 and ¼ feet to a meter, compared with 3 feet to a yard). There are 10.8 square feet in a square meter. There are 9 square feet in a square yard (3x3=9). A simple calculation can accomplish the conversion from square meters to square yards. A square yard is 83.33 percent of a square meter. Prove this by multiplying 10.8 (the number of square feet in a square meter) by 83.33%. The answer is nine (the number of square feet in a square yard). If you perform the calculation you will see that the answer is slightly less than the whole number 9 (but close enough for our purpose). Using this conversion, we can say that a square yard of land in direct sunlight receives 1000 x 83.33% = 833 watts of solar energy. This calculation can also be used in reverse to convert yards to meters, simply divide by .8333 (833 divided by .8333 = 1000 rounded).
Every square yard of land, if exposed to direct sunlight, receives about 833 watts of solar energy [NOTE: see the map above, and adjust the estimated amount of solar energy accordingly]. Therefore, a one square yard area exposed to continuous direct sunlight [in an optimal geographical location] for six hours will have received 6 hours x 833 watts = 4,998 watt-hours of solar energy during the course of a day. In round numbers, a one square yard area will receive about 5000 watt-hours (5 kilowatt-hours) per day of solar energy. Another way to obtain this result would be to take the 6 kilowatt-hours per meter (explained above in the third paragraph) and apply the conversion calculation (6 x 83.33% = 5 rounded).
Americans can assume, at least in the Sunbelt regions of the southwestern United States, that every square yard of land exposed to direct sunlight will receive about 5 kilowatt-hours per day of solar energy.
With the above information in mind, perform the following exercise: Measure an area ten yards long and ten yards wide. That would be thirty feet by thirty feet. Take a good look at the size of it. You are looking at an area covering 100 square yards. If that area were in direct sunlight all day it would receive about (5 x 100) 500 kilowatt-hours per day of solar energy. Now go look at your home electric bill. Your electric company calculates your home electric bill based on how many kilowatt-hours of electrical energy you use. Find the total amount of electricity that you have been billed for (given in kilowatt-hours). The amount of kilowatt-hours on your bill is for an entire month. If your home is a typical residential electric customer, you and your family consume between 500 and 1000 kilowatt-hours of electricity per month. Compare the quantity of electric energy your home consumed in one month with the quantity of energy the sun gives freely to a 100 square yard area exposed to direct sunlight. One hundred square yards of sunshine provides as much energy in 1 to 2 days as an average family uses in an entire month!
It would be great if 100% of the sunshine became electricity, but solar energy and electricity are not the same. Technology accomplishes the conversion of solar energy to electricity. Several different technologies are used; perhaps the one that most people have heard of is the solar panel, made from photovoltaic cells called PV.
For a detailed explanation of photovoltaic cells there is a very good article on the Internet located at:, it is well written and easy to read.
Conversion of one form of energy to another always causes a loss of energy. In other words, the new form of energy will be less than the original. Efficiency is the word scientists use to describe the difference in power resulting from the conversion of one form of energy to another. The efficiency of commercially available solar panels (PV) is about 15%. This means that when a solar panel converts the sun's light to electricity, only about 15 percent of the energy in the sunlight becomes electricity. The same thing is true of gasoline in your car. Your car's engine can only convert about twenty-five percent of the energy in gasoline to mechanical energy that turns the wheels.
With an average efficiency of 15 percent, a square yard of solar photovoltaic cells (PV) would produce (5 kilowatt-hours of solar energy multiplied by 15% =) .75 kilowatt-hours of electric energy per day. Solar panels (PV) covering an area ten yards by ten yards (100 square yards or 900 square feet) would produce 100 x .75 = 75 kilowatt-hours of electricity per day.
Seventy-five kilowatt-hours per day is a lot of electricity for a single-family home. If part of the electricity is stored in a home battery, or is used to electrolyze water for producing hydrogen gas, and the gas is stored for use by a fuel cell when needed, then 100 square yards covered with solar panels would provide an average family with energy independence. Most detached family homes have more than 100 square yards (900 square feet) of roof, or that much space around their homes where solar panels could be installed.
In the Southwest, if you look at any commercial or industrial park, or any typical mall or supermarket you will see that most of the buildings have flat roofs. Those roofs require insulation to lower the cost of air conditioning on hot days. If those roofs where covered with solar panels the sun would provide electricity for the air conditioning and save businesses millions of dollars per month that would otherwise be paid to the utility companies
Another technology, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), takes a different approach to harnessing the power of the sun. Unlike photovoltaic cells, CSP uses mirrors to concentrate the sunlight on a focal point, which magnifies the suns heat. Similar to holding a magnifying glass in the sun, focusing the light onto a piece of paper until the paper catches on fire.
CSP technology has more than one form. Troughs, dishes and towers are the different forms available today. A CSP dish or tower looks like a modern glass sculpture and contributes aesthetically to the landscape. CSP systems can achieve 30 percent efficiency, or about twice the efficiency of standard photovoltaic cells (2 x .75 = 1.5 kilowatt-hours per square yard per day).
Large Concentrating Solar Power plants create the thermal energy equivalent to conventional fossil fuel power plants. After the sun sets, CSP plants generate electricity from cost-effective thermal storage, providing 24-hour service to the power grid.
Consider the solar energy potential of one acre of land. There are 43,560 square feet in an acre. Divide the number of square feet in one acre by 9 (the number of square feet in one square yard) and you find that there are 4,840 square yards in one acre of land. A CSP dish, tower, or trough receiving an acre of sunshine would yield about (1.5 kilowatt-hours per square yard times 4,840 square yards per acre) 7,260 kilowatt-hours of electricity per day, at 30% efficiency. One acre has enough solar energy potential to yield 7.26 megawatt-hours of electricity per day, using technology that exists now. (Each thousand kilowatts is one million watts. A million watts is a megawatt.)
Consider the solar energy potential of one square mile of land. A square mile is 640 acres. One square mile of sunshine has the potential of providing (640 acres x 7.26 megawatt-hours) 4,646 megawatt-hours per day of electricity using existing CSP technology at 30% efficiency.
Ten thousand square miles is a plot of land 100 miles long by 100 miles wide. Multiply 640 acres by 10,000 square miles equals 6,400,000 acres. With a yield of 7.26 megawatt-hours of electricity per day per acre, a CSP system receiving 6,400,000 acres of sunshine would produce about 46,464,000 megawatt-hours of electricity per day.
The entire State of California uses about 50,000 megawatt-hours of electricity per hour at peak time, and much less during off-peak hours: Sweltering California declares power emergency —Cal ISO expects record demand at 52,336 megawatts.
Suppose that California uses an average of 38,000 megawatt-hours of electricity per hour over a 24-hour period, then 24 hours x 38,000 megawatts = 912,000 megawatt-hours per day, multiplied by 365 = 333,880,000 megawatt-hours per year. This supposed average is too high because in 2005, California actually consumed 288,245,000 megawatt-Hours (MWh) for the entire year:
A CSP farm large enough to capture the solar energy radiating on an area of land 100 miles long by 100 miles wide can produce about 50 times more electricity in a day than California consumes in a 24-hour period. For example, 50 x 912,000 = 45,600,000 megawatt-hours per day.
Imagine driving your car 100 miles along one side of the CSP farm, then turn 90 degrees right and drive 100 miles along another side, then turn 90 degrees right again and drive another 100 miles, then make another 90 degree right turn and drive another 100 miles to complete driving a 100 mile square. Inside that area is 10,000 square miles or 6,400,000 acres.
A 10,000 square mile solar energy farm that produces 46,464,000 megawatt-hours of electricity per day would produce 365 x 46,464,000 = 16,956,360,000 megawatt-hours of electricity per year or about 17 trillion kilowatt-hours, which is 17,000 terawatt-hours or 17 petawatt-hours.
Tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, 1 Trillion or 1,000,000,000,000 (1 million million) therefore, 1 terawatt = 1 Trillion watts.
In physics and mathematics, peta- (symbol: P) is a prefix in the SI (system of units) denoting 1015, 1 Quadrillion or 1,000,000,000,000,000 (one billion million) therefore, 1 petawatt = 1 Quadrillion watts.
The Following is quoted from the Executive Summary of a report by Sargent & Lundy engineering, titled: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts, delivered to the U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory:
Based on this review, it is S&L’s opinion that CSP technology is a proven technology for energy production, there is a potential market for CSP technology, and that significant cost reductions are achievable assuming reasonable deployment of CSP technologies occurs. S&L independently projected capital and O&M costs, from which the levelized energy costs were derived, based on a conservative approach whereby the technology improvements are limited to current demonstrated or tested improvements and with a relatively low rate of deployment.

The projections for electrical power consumption in the United States and worldwide vary depending on the study, but there will be a significant increase in installed capacity due to increased demand through 2020. Trough and tower solar power plants can compete with technologies that provide bulk power to the electric utility transmission and distribution systems if market entry barriers are overcome:
• Market expansion of trough and tower technology will require incentives to reach market acceptance (competitiveness). Both tower and trough technology currently produce electricity that is more expensive than conventional fossil-fueled technology.
• Significant cost reductions will be required to reach market acceptance (competitiveness). S&L focused on the potential of cost reductions with the assumption that incentives will occur to support deployment through market expansion.
For the more technically aggressive low-cost case, S&L found the National Laboratories' "SunLab" methodology and analysis to be credible. The projections by SunLab, developed in conjunction with industry, are considered by S&L to represent a "best-case analysis" in which the technology is optimized and a high deployment rate is achieved. The two sets of estimates, by SunLab and S&L, provide a band within which the costs can be expected to fall. The figure and table below highlight these results, with initial electricity costs in the range of 10 to 12.6 ¢/kWh and eventually achieving costs in the range of 3.5 to 6.2 ¢/kWh. The specific values will depend on total capacity of various technologies deployed and the extent of R&D program success. In the technically aggressive cases for troughs / towers, the S&L analysis found that cost reductions were due to volume production (26%/28%), plant scale-up (20%/48%), and technological advance (54%/24%)”.
A THINK BIG Nation like USA will set an example to Sunbelt countries in harnessing SOLAR ENERGY.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Environmentalists have found yet another ally in their battle to prevent the passage of California’s regressive Proposition 23, which would put a temporary end to the environmental protections passed by governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2006.
Microsoft founder Bill Gates announced this week that he will be writing a check for $700,000 to the “No on Prop 23” campaign. In addition to Gates’ generous donation, other Silicon Valley moguls have put money into the campaign to defeat Prop 23. Google co-founder Sergey Brin has already given $200,000, and Intel co-founder Gordon Moore has given more than $1 million to the campaign.
But these tech moguls are fighting the powerful and cash-flush oil and gas industries, who have poured millions of dollars into the campaign to pass Prop 23. One of the most high-profiled donors working to help pass Prop 23 is Koch Industries, who has poured more than $1 million into the campaign.
As we’ve reported before, California has one of the most comprehensive and sweeping laws in place to help curb the emission of greenhouse gases. Officially titled “The Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32),” the law was passed in 2006.
Prop 23 is being sponsored by groups who claim that the protections that were put in place by AB 32 are hindering their ability to create new jobs. California currently has an unemployment rate of 12%, and Prop 23 would suspend current environmental protections until that rate falls below 5.5%.
With elections less than two weeks away, the big money on both sides of the bill could have a serious influence on voters. We’ll have to wait until November 2nd to see which side used their money better.
Your Suppport is most welcome Mr.Bill Gates
SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON SAT, 2010-10-23 02:20.
Microsoft Founder Mr.Bill Gates support to” battle to prevent the passage of California’s regressive Proposition 23, which would put a temporary end to the environmental protections passed by governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2006” is most welcome.
Proposition 23 is a California ballot proposition which will be on the November 2, 2010 California statewide ballot.
If it passes, it will suspend AB 32, a law enacted in 2006 that is in extenso, legally referred to as the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006. Sponsors of the initiative refer to their measure as the California Jobs Initiative while opponents have called it the Dirty Energy Prop.
The goal of the proposition is to freeze the provisions of AB 32 until California's unemployment rate drops to 5.5% or below for four consecutive quarters. As the current rate is 12.4%, this wording is seen by Arnold Schwarzenegger and others as a wording trick to delay the environmental regulations indefinitely.[. AB 32 requires that greenhouse emission levels in the state be cut to 1990 levels by 2020, in a gradual process of cutting that is slated to begin in 2012. Reducing greenhouse emission levels to 1990 levels will involve cutting them by about 15% from 2010 levels.
AB 32 includes a provision allowing the Governor of California to suspend the provisions of AB 32 if there are "extraordinary circumstances" in place, such as "significant economic harm". The supporters of Prop 23, Assemblyman Dan Logue and Ted Costa, decided to circulate a petition to accomplish a suspension of the environmental regulations. Governor Schwarzenegger, as well as the major party candidates for Governor, Jerry Brown, and Meg Whitman, have all stated they will vote "no" on Prop 23.
Louise Bedsworth, a research fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California, predicted in April that total campaign spending on this proposition, if it succeeds in gaining a spot on the November ballot, could top the $154 million record set in 2006 by Proposition 87.
If campaign spending on the proposition does reach that level, it could be because supporters and opponents view the battle over the suspension of AB 32 as symbolic in the larger national debate over global warming. Steven Maviglio, speaking for a group that wants to keep AB 32 intact, said, "...this could be a ground zero for the battle for the future of clean energy."(Source: Wikipedia).
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP), India

Consumer brand giant Procter & Gamble (NYSE: PG) announced its long-term plans to become a significantly more environmentally sustainable company.
By 2020, among many things, the company plans to replace 25% of its petroleum-based materials with sustainably sourced renewable materials, power its manufacturing plants with 30% renewable energy and reduce truck transportation of goods by 20% based on km/unit of volume).
The overall vision is to eventually use 100% renewable energy and see zero consumer waste go to landfills.
Founded in 1837 Procter & Gamble produces a range of household products, including Crest toothpaste, Head & Shoulder shampoo, Dawn dish detergent and CoverGirl cosmetics.
Congratulations Procter & Gamble
Consumer brand giant Procter & Gamble announcement of its long-term plans to become a significantly more environmentally sustainable company is indeed laudable. This shows the concern and commitment of Private Industries to promote clean environment and sustainable technologies.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

After almost two years of stalled efforts, President Obama announced that he will be making climate change legislation one of his administration’s top priorities next year.
In a recent Rolling Stone magazine interview, the President said that he was very disappointed at his inability to keep his campaign promises of reducing carbon emissions so far, as the Senate was unable to bring their version of a climate bill to a full vote.
Last summer, the U.S. House of Representatives passed their version of a climate bill, but due to a lack of Republican support, the U.S. Senate never brought their version to a vote, thus stalling the entire process.
In the Rolling Stone interview, President Obama acknowledged that enacting meaningful climate legislation would not only be good for the environment, but also for the U.S. economy. Business Green quoted the President as saying:
“One of my top priorities next year is to have an energy policy that begins to address all facets of our over-reliance on fossil fuels. I am committed to making sure we get an energy policy that makes sense for the country and that helps us grow at the same time as it deals with climate change in a serious way.”
The President went on to say that if a comprehensive bill is not possible, then he will encourage Congress to attach pieces of the original bills onto other bills in order to get them to pass.
However, this plan hinges on the belief that the Democrats will retain control of both Houses of Congress after this year’s midterm elections, as Republicans have made it clear they will not support the President’s energy policies, instead pushing for further production of dangerous forms of energy, including offshore drilling, “clean” coal production, and gas exploration.
Your initiative on climate bill is praiseworthy President Obama
We, environmentalists welcome your commitment to have climate change legislation one of your administration’s top priorities next year.
In an interesting article, what the climate bill means for the US way of life (New Scientist Environment 18 August 2010) Jim Giles, brought out the importance of climate bill.
“The refusal of successive US governments to limit greenhouse gas emissions infuriates environmentalists – but things may be about to change. Last week, Democratic senator John Kerry and Joe Lieberman, an independent, unveiled the American Power Act – a climate bill that has President Barack Obama's backing. The text's 1000-odd pages contain proposals that would shake up the US economy and reinvigorate global climate-change negotiations. Here's what the bill means for US citizens and the rest of the world.
Will the bill really rein in US greenhouse gas emissions?
The headline figures – a 4.5 per cut in emissions by 2013 and 17 per cent by 2020 – sound impressive. But the senators have pegged those cuts to a 2005 baseline. Many other countries use 1990 and, compared with that reference point, the 2020 target amounts to no more than a 3 per cent cut. The European Union has committed to a 20 per cent reduction over the same period – and some climate scientists have called that "inadequate".
But the bill is still hugely important. It tells US businesses to prepare for a future in which emissions will fall, and that will spur investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The emissions targets could also be tightened up at a future date”.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Germany's new energy plan has garnered praise as well as protest, as the country propels toward a clean energy future.
The German government has announced its plan to generate 80% of the country's energy from renewable sources by 2050. Currently Germany produces 16% of its energy from renewable sources.
It seems as though more of Germany's energy will come from nuclear power in the near future, as the government has decided to extend the life of nuclear power plants. The previous administration, a coalition of the center-left Social Democrats and the Greens, had scheduled all nuclear power stations to be taken offline by 2021. Under the new energy scheme, the reactors will continue to run for an average of 12 years beyond 2021.
News of this decision led to protests in Berlin. Opinion polls show that six out of ten Germans want nuclear power plants closed.
Economy Minister Rainer Bruederle said, "For the first time in many years, a German government is setting out an energy plan for the long term."
Kudos Germany for pushing Renewables
Germany is the world's first major renewable-energy economy.
Here is an interesting account on:
Germany 'far ahead in renewable energy market' (EFEF 2010 EUROPEAN FUTURE ENERGY FORUM,14 July 2010):
“Germany's progression in the renewable energy market has in part been down to the influence of its nationals.
It is the country's collective consciousness of the effect that it can have on the environment that has helped it to develop so effectively, according to German parliamentarian Barbel Kofler.
Ms Kofler told the Sydney Morning Herald that the sight of dead trout and salmon in the River Rhine in the 1970s had acted as a catalyst for many Germans.
"What has happened as a result of those events and others is that Germany started to become more aware of its environmental footprint," she explained.
Germany has around 300,500 people employed in jobs in the green sector, with the antipodean nation boasting just 10,000, the article stated.
The use of renewable energy is increasing across Europe, with almost 20 per cent of the fuel consumed on the continent coming from sustainable sources in 2009, the European Union has announced”.
The share of electricity from renewable energy in Germany has increased from 6.3 percent in 2000 to about 16.1 percent in 2009. More than 9 billion euros (US$11.31 billion) was invested in new renewable energy installations in Germany in 2006. Some 214,000 people in Germany were employed in the renewable energy sector in 2006, especially in small and medium sized companies. Over half of these jobs are attributed to the Renewable Energy Sources Act.
Since 1997, Germany and the other states of the European Union have been working towards a target of 12% renewable energy electricity by 2010. This target was surpassed already in 2007 when the renewable energy share in electricity consumption in Germany reached 14%. On April 26, 2007, Environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel announced that this target would rise to 27% by 2020. Electricity use is to be cut by 11%, and the number of cogeneration plants is to double.
In 2009, the percentable of renewable sources in Germany's total energy consumption was 10.1% (+8.6% compared to 2008). Biomass contributed 7.0% of the total energy consumption, wind power 1.6%, hydro power 0.8% and other renewables 0.7%.According to Enerdata analystes, near the end of 2009, authorities approved plans for a further 40 offshore wind projects, representing a total capacity of 12 GW.
The ratio of renewables sources of the total electricity consumption was 16.1% (+5.9%). Wind power produced 6.5% and bioenergy 5.2% of the total electricity consumption in 2009.
The renewable energy sector benefited when the Alliance '90/The Greens party joined the Federal Government between 1998 and 2005. The renewable energy sector was aided especially by the law that required businesses to buy energy generated from renewable sources first before buying energy from non-renewable sources. People who produce energy in their own homes have a guarantee by the government that they can sell their 'product' at fixed prices for a period of 20 years. This has created a surge in the production of clean energy.
For the 2005-2010 period the Federal Government set aside nearly 800 million euros for scientific research in the country. That research is going to be earmarked for policies of long-lasting development.
Additionally, in 2001 a law passed requiring the closing of all nuclear power plants within a period of 32 years. The idea is that in 2020 nuclear energy will not be used anywhere in the country. However, this policy is likely to be reverted or its implementation postponed.
The German energy policy is framed within the European Union, and the March 2007 European Council in Brussels approved a mandatory energy plan that requires a 20% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions before the year 2020 and the consumption of renewable energies to be 20% of total EU consumption (compared to 7% in 2006)[8]. The accord indirectly acknowledged the role of nuclear energy -- which is not renewable, but emissions-free -- in the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gasses, allowing each member state to decide whether or not to use nuclear generated electricity.
Also a compromise was reached to achieve a minimum quota of 10% Biofuels in the total consumption of gasoline and diesel in transport in 2020 (Source: Wikipedia).
The German government has announced its plan to generate 80% of the country's energy from renewable sources by 2050. Will other countries follow suit?
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India
In India Renewables are far far ahead of Nuclear Energy


In India also Renewable Energy is far ahead of Nuclear Energy. Here is an analysis and comparison.
India's operating nuclear power reactors:
Reactor State Type MWe net, each Commercial operation Safeguards status
Tarapur 1 & 2 Maharashtra BWR 150 1969 item-specific
Kaiga 1 & 2 Karnataka PHWR 202 1999-2000
Kaiga 3 Karnataka PHWR 202 2007
Kakrapar 1 & 2 Gujarat PHWR 202 1993-95 in 2012 under new agreement
Kalpakkam 1 & 2 (MAPS) Tamil Nadu PHWR 202 1984-86
Narora 1 & 2 Uttar Pradesh PHWR 202 1991-92 in 2014 under new agreement
Rajasthan 1 Rajasthan PHWR 90 1973 item-specific
Rajasthan 2 Rajasthan PHWR 187 1981 item-specific
Rajasthan 3 & 4 Rajasthan PHWR 202 1999-2000 early 2010 under new agreement
Rajasthan 5 & 6 Rajasthan PHWR 202 Feb & April 2010 Oct 2009 under new agreement
Tarapur 3 & 4 Maharashtra PHWR 490 2006, 05
Total (19) 4183 MWe

India's nuclear power reactors under construction:
Reactor Type MWe net, each Project control Commercial operation due
Safeguards status
Kaiga 4 PHWR 202 MWe NPCIL 5/2010
Kudankulam 1 PWR (VVER) 950 MWe NPCIL 12/2010 item-specific
Kudankulam 2 PWR (VVER) 950 MWe NPCIL mid 2011 item-specific
Kalpakkam PFBR FBR 470 MWe Bhavini 9/2011, or 2012 -
Total (4) 2572 MWe
Rajasthan/RAPS also known as Rawatbhata

Power from renewable energy sources such as wind, biomass, small hydro and solar energy is being generated in grid-interactive and off-grid modes for meeting the electricity requirements in different locations across the country. Power generated from wind, small hydro and biomass energy projects is being fed to the grid. 15,691 MW grid power from renewables has been installed upto 31st December 2009. In addition, renewable energy sources are being utilised for off-grid power generation to meet electricity requirements at decentralised locations.

Among the most successful Renewable Energy Sources in India is Wind. The Indian wind energy sector has an installed capacity of 11807.00 MW (as on March 31, 2010). In terms of wind power installed capacity, India is ranked 5th in the World. Today India is a major player in the global wind energy market.

Consequent to the announcement of the National Action Plan on Climate Change in June 2008, development of solar energy technologies in the country was identified to be pursued as a National Mission. In November 2009, the Government of India approved the “Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission” (JNNSM) which aims at development and deployment of solar energy technologies in the country to achieve parity with grid power tariff by 2022. The objective of the National Solar Mission is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. On 11th January, 2010 Hon’ble Prime Minister of India launched the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in a Solar Energy Conclave organized by the Ministry.
The Mission will adopt a 3-phase approach, spanning the remaining period of the 11th Plan and first year of the 12th Plan (up to 2012-13) as Phase 1, the remaining 4 years of the 12th Plan (2013-17) as Phase 2 and the 13th Plan (2017-22) as Phase 3. At the end of each plan, and mid-term during the 12th and 13th Plans, there will be an evaluation of progress, review of capacity and targets for subsequent phases, based on emerging cost and technology trends, both domestic and global.
The immediate aim of the Mission is to focus on setting up an enabling policy environment for solar technology penetration in the country both at centralized and decentralized levels. The first phase (up to 2013) will focus on capturing of the low-hanging options in solar thermal; on promoting off-grid systems to serve populations without access to commercial energy and modest capacity addition in grid-based systems. In the second phase, after taking into account the experience of the initial years, capacity will be aggressively ramped up to create conditions for up scaled and competitive solar energy penetration in the country.
To achieve this, the Mission targets are:
• To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022.
• To ramp up capacity of grid-connected solar power generation to 1000 MW within three years – by 2013; an additional 3000 MW by 2017 through the mandatory use of the renewable purchase obligation by utilities backed with a preferential tariff. This capacity can be more than doubled – reaching 10,000 MW installed power by 2017 or more, based on the enhanced and enabled international finance and technology transfer. The ambitious target for 2022 of 20,000 MW or more, will be dependent on the ‘learning’ of the first two phases, which if successful, could lead to conditions of grid-competitive solar power. The transition could be appropriately up scaled, based on availability of international finance and technology.
• To create favourable conditions for solar manufacturing capability, particularly solar thermal for indigenous production and market leadership.
• To promote programmes for off - grid applications, reaching 2000 MW by 2022 including 20 million solar lighting systems.
• To achieve 20 million m2 solar thermal collector area by 2022. (Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, Annual Report 2010).
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore

Vietnam, an oil-exporting country bordered by China to the north and Laos and Cambodia to the west, is almost completely reliant on crude oil and coal. But things are starting to change.
The Southeast Asian nation, which built its first wind farm last year, is now constructing a 99-megawatt wind facility in the country's Bac Lieu province. Germany's Fuhrländer AG, a private company, will build a US$25 million wind turbine factory in central Vietnam to supply the project.
In the Mekong Delta, a rural province known for its numerous rice farms, almost a dozen rice husk-fueled power plants are under construction. The world's second-largest rice exporter after Thailand, Vietnam produces some 34 to 36 million tons of rice annually, leaving some 7 million tons of husks as a byproduct. Currently, half of the waste husks are used for cattle feed, making fertilizer or manufacturing plywood; the other half is disposed of.
According to the World Bank, Vietnam has the potential to produce more than 500 gigawatts of electricity from wind farms, ten times the country's expected national demand in 2020. Several Finnish clean-tech companies have expressed an interest in bringing renewable technologies to the country.
In other energy news: British Petroleum (NYSE: BP), which owns gas fields, a pipeline and terminal in Vietnam worth an estimated $1 billion, plans to sell its local assets as part of an effort to raise US$10 billion to cover costs related to the Gulf oil spill.
Developing countries like Vietnam can harness Renewables
There is great scope to harness Renewables in Vietnam. Here is an interesting analysis on scope for Renewables in Vietnam. Over the course of two decades Vietnam has emerged as an important regional producer of oil and natural gas in Southeast Asia. The country has boosted exploration activities, allowed greater foreign company involvement in the oil and natural gas sectors, and introduced market reforms aimed at strengthening Vietnam’s energy industry. While these efforts have helped Vietnam expand production of oil and natural gas, domestic consumption of these resources has also increased as a result of rapid economic growth. The country’s real gross domestic product (GDP) has grown by an average 7.3 percent over the last ten years. Half of Vietnam’s domestic energy consumption comes from oil, with hydropower (20 percent), coal (18 percent), and natural gas (12 percent) supplying the remainder. There are a number of power plants planned or proposed in Vietnam. The government has plans to increase Vietnam’s total installed generating capacity to 81 GW by 2020, or 9 times the 2004 capacity. As part of this effort, EVN has outlined plans to build 74 new power stations by 2020. Of these, 48 are slated to hydroelectric facilities, which has led some in the Vietnamese government to express concern about the country’s reliance on hydropower. Among the planned facilities is the Song La plant, which at 2,400 MW will make it Vietnam’s largest hydroelectric power station when completed. To diversify the country’s electricity supply, Vietnam has reportedly considered adding nuclear power to its generation mix. The Government of Viet Nam, in the National 2001-2010 Socio-Economic Development Strategy, has set out its development goals for 2010. These 12 goals (referred to as Viet Nam’s Development Goals or VDGs) that reflect the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) take into account development features specific to Viet Nam. The VDGs have been integrated into national socio-economic development strategies and five-year plans, which can be seen also as the national plan for achieving the MDGs. The nationalization and inclusion of the MDGs into national planning helps mobilize the entire society to reach its own goals and to honour Viet Nam’s international commitments. The most recent household survey data indicate that in 2004 the poverty rate was 19.5 per cent, and the share of the population living on less than a dollar a day fell sharply to 7.8 per cent. In 2004, the net enrolment rate in primary school reached 94.4 per cent, the primary school completion rate 99.82 per cent, and the adult literacy rate (among persons 15-24 years of age) 94.5 per cent. Increased investment in rural infrastructure has provided clean water and sanitation facilities to millions of households. In 2004, 41 per cent of the rural population had access to hygienic latrines. The position of women has improved in education and training, employment, and leadership. Child and maternal mortality rates have been significantly reduced: for 2004 the under-five mortality rate was 31.5 for 100 live births; the infant mortality rate was 18; and the maternal mortality ratio 85 per 100,000 newborns. These figures are very impressive, particularly for a country of Viet Nam’s income level(Source: Global Energy Network Institute).
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

National governments are making big plans to transition to renewable energy, but small towns in Italy are showing that local action may be more productive than national initiatives.
In Italy energy prices are enormously high -- close to three times the prices of energy in the U.S. -- and fluctuate recklessly as a result of sharp changes in the price of fossil fuels over the last decade.
Now, over 800 Italian towns are producing more energy than they consume. The poor mountainous community of Tocco produces enough electricity from solar panels on its cemetery, sports complex, and individual homes as well as from four wind turbines located throughout the town for it to generate 30% more energy than it consumes. Through national feed-in tariffs, Tocco generated a revenue of US$200,000 last year. By adopting renewable power, the small Italian town has become energy independent, developed another source of municipal income, and has eliminated taxes for services such as garbage removal.
Kieran McNamara of the International Energy Agency said that although local clean energy initiatives like Tocco's will not be able to sustain an industrial economy, they are important nonetheless: "These small projects have their own intrinsic value and ame a very, very positive contribution in countries where electricity prices are high."
Great scope for Renewables in small Italian Towns
I was in Italy for 2 years. There is great scope for decentralised energy systems like wind, solar, microhydro Italy especially in small Italian towns. In fact Italy voted against nuclear in a referendum.
About Rural policy, OECD Rural Policy Review: Italy states:
“The rural economy. On average, Italy’s predominantly rural regions (PRs) have some of the highest GDP per capita among the OECD rural regions. For instance, Aosta and Belluno, the richest PRs in Italy, rank respectively third and seventh within the OECD PRs in terms of GDP per capita. Rural Italy’s good performance could be linked to good accessibility, great cultural and natural amenities, and entrepreneurship. The rich endowment of coast, plain and mountains provides rural regions with numerous tourism opportunities. In fact, rural Italy was home to some 17 thousand farm guesthouses in 2006, 9.3% more than in 2005. Manufacturing represents an important part of the rural economy in Italy. In 2003, 12% of Italian manufacturing firms (541 thousand) were in PRs. In some cases the concentration of firms took the form of a diffused small-scale industrialisation with a productive framework strongly interlinked with the local community and an intense division of labour among firms. Although it is generally declining, agriculture continues to provide a number of services, in the field of environment and amenities, and it also represents a cultural background that supports a number of successful economic activities, such as the food industry”.
At the end of March 2010 Italy has Wind Installations of 5133 MW.with sixth position in the world only behind USA 36220 MW, China 25805 MW, Germany 25704 MW, Spain 19450 MW and India 11500 MW.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Besides being a tasty summer snack, there may be yet another use for watermelon: fuel.
According to a recent study by researchers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), the juice from watermelons may one day fuel our vehicles!
A team of researchers are conducting the Watermelon Juice, Rind, and Pulp Waste Streams as Potential Feedstocks for Ethanol Biofuel Production project. The goal of the project is twofold: to optimize conditions for fermentation of the juice to ethanol, and to optimize the process and conditions for converting the complex carbohydrates of the pulp and rind into constituent sugars for fermentation. During the project, watermelons will be grown and processed under controlled conditions at the South Central Agricultural Research Center in Lane, OK. The project, which began in 2007, is expected to continue until 2010.
According to the study, several factors make watermelon juice a viable contender for ethanol production. 20 percent of the watermelon crop goes to waste each year resulting in lost revenue. Watermelons that have cosmetic imperfections such as surface blemishes or have unusual shapes, are not used and are often left in fields to be re-plowed. Those discarded and unwanted melons could one day be used for biofuel feedstock, providing additional revenue for growers.
Wayne W. Fish, research chemist and one of the researchers involved in the project said, “We've shown that the juice of these melons is a source of readily fermentable sugars, representing a heretofore untapped feedstock for ethanol biofuel production." Growers with average-sized farms could keep the melon fuel for their own personal use while larger farms could sell the fuel. Since transporting the watermelon to processing plants may be too costly, a more practical solution may be mobile “breweries” that could travel from farm to farm.
Besides being a favorite American fruit, watermelon may one day prove to be an environmentally-friendly alternative to fossil fuels. The report, Watermelon juice: A promising feedstock supplement, diluent and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production, is published in the journal Biotechnology for Biofuels.
Fruit juice as fuel!
It is very innovative idea. Watermelon is a fruit which is grown widely and available in summer as soothing fruit in India. When such great use as fuel is there, one can think of genetically modifying the plant so that it grows even in other seasons like mango.
Here is an interesting article on Fruit juice Fuel,
My Car Runs on Fruit Juice! By Alborz Fallah | June 22nd, 2007, Car Advice:
In a battle to find a new source of fuel to power the increasing number of vehicles in the world, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have just discovered that fructose (simple sugar found in fruit) can be converted into a type of fuel that has many advantages over ethanol.
The fuel is currently called dimethylfuran and it can store up to 40% more energy than ethanol and more importantly it is more stable and does not evaporate as easily as ethanol.
All work is in the preliminary stages of development and studies need to be conducted to examine the environmental impact of this new fuel.
Besides Fruit Juice fuel, the Brits have been busy as well, they have created a new process called biomass to liquid (BTL), a new technology which can create biodiesel fuel from a range of materials including wood, weeds and plastic bags.
It is believed that in six or so years, nearly 30% of Britain’s diesel needs could be met from BTL. Jeremy Tomkinson from the National Non-Food Crops Centre in the UK said the new production methods of biofuels is not necessarily just for cars.
“The impact on society we’re hoping will be far wider than simply ‘we can give you a fuel now with a tenfold reduction in its carbon footprint’.
“Imagine now if chemicals that we use in the chemical industry also came from the same feed stock, the aircraft that we fly to New York in also runs on this? There’s the big potential,” he said.
Of course there are drawbacks, there is currently a massive setup cost involved with establishing production centres, (nearly 10x the cost compared to conventional means) to produce biofuel via alternative ways, fortunately though, unlike fossil fuel, money is not going to run out!
The future is looking greener everyday”.
How about musk melon Juice as fuel?
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India
Study Shows Algae Fuel Better for the Environment Than Diesel and Soybean Fuel
Submitted by eBoom Staff on September 30, 2010

New research from Colorado State University shows the production of algae biofuel is healthier for the environment compared to petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel production.
The study, performed by Professors Thomas Bradley and Bryan Willson, analyzed the entire life cycle of algal biofuel production. This included assessing factors such as the energy required to grow the algae, the energy needed to produce fertilizer for growth, and the energy used by diesel trucks to move the algae from manufacturing facilities to gas stations.
Algae, the darling of the biofuel industry, has received criticism for being energy intensive. For example, last month a study was released in the scientific journal, Energy and Fuels which stated algae generated in bioreactors produces more than three times the emissions of gasoline.
Bradley and Willson state the findings of their study display the exact opposite: "“We made an apples-to-apples comparison and the results show that algae is net beneficial - it reduces greenhouse gas emissions more than soy biodiesel and is more scalable and it has lower energy consumption than soy biodiesel.”
Algae Fuel is Future fuel
Submitted by anumakonda on Sat, 2010-10-02 08:46.
Yes. Indeed Algae Fuel is Environmentally clean.
Here are more details:
Algae fuel, also called algal fuel, algaeoleum or third-generation biofuelis a biofuel which is derived from algae. During photosynthesis, algae and other photosynthetic organisms capture carbon dioxide and sunlight and convert it into oxygen and biomass. Up to 99% of the carbon dioxide in solution can be converted, which was shown by Weissman and Tillett (1992) in large-scale open-pond systems.
Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. The production of biofuels from algae does not reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), because any CO2 taken out of the atmosphere by the algae is returned when the biofuels are burned. They do however eliminate the introduction of new CO2 by displacing fossil hydrocarbon fuels.
High oil prices, competing demands between foods and other biofuel sources, and the world food crisis, have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for making vegetable oil, biodiesel, bioethanol, biogasoline, biomethanol, biobutanol and other biofuels, using land that is not suitable for agriculture. Among algal fuels' attractive characteristics: they do not affect fresh water resources, can be produced using ocean and wastewater, and are biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae cost more per unit mass (as of 2010, food grade algae costs ~$5000/tonne), due to high capital and operating costs,yet can theoretically yield between 10 and 100 times more energy per unit area than other second-generation biofuel crops.
Dry mass factor is the percentage of dry biomass in relation to the fresh biomass; e.g. if the dry mass factor is 5%, one would need 20 kg of wet algae (algae in the media) to get 1 kg of dry algae cells.
Lipid content is the percentage of oil in relation to the dry biomass needed to get it, i.e. if the algae lipid content is 40%, one would need 2.5 kg of dry algae to get 1 kg of oil.
Macro Vs Micro
Which type of algae? - Microalgae have high oil content but are difficult to cultivate and harvest in a cost-efficient manner. Macroalgae, on the other hand, present low-cost cultivation and harvesting possibilities, but most species are low in lipids as well as carbohydrates - it is however possible to derive biofuels from macroalgae using cellulosic fermentation methods, gasification or anaerobic digestion. Thus, both micro and macroalgae are potential feedstock for biofuels. Which route should be followed, and why?

Waste Water Treatment
Algae are well-known bioremediation agents, especially good at removing nutrients and toxins from waste and sewage water. Can this fact be used by tens of thousands of companies around the world to choose-effectively treat wastewater while at the same time produce biofuels?
Power Plant CO2 Capture
Thousands of CO2 emitting power plants and industries face a costly problem - reduce your CO2 emissions or pay penalties. What if these companies and power plants could use algae to absorb the CO2 and generate biofuels in return? This is precisely what companies and power plants around the world are beginning to explore.
Other Emerging Products from Algae
Making products from algae is not exactly new. For decades algae have been used to make a variety of products - from nutraceuticals, to pigments to organic fertilizers. Today, companies are able to produce many more high end products from algae. Is it then possible for algae fuel companies to synergistically produce both fuels and non-fuel products thereby increasing their profits and prospects?
Variety of Fuels and Processes
While biodiesel is the most obvious fuel that can be considered from algae (owing to the large oil content of microalgae), it is but one of the products that are possible. Others include ethanol, methane, hydrogen, biogasoline and the algal biomass itself which can be used as a feedstock of combustion. What are the processes and pathways for each of these end-products? What are the costs and benefits of each of these products and processes?
Latest Efforts in Cost-effective Photobioreactors
Growing microalgae in photobioreactors results in high algae productivity, and consequently results in higher oil yields for the same area. However, photobioreactors are much more expensive than open ponds. What then are the current efforts in photobioreactor design that can lead to lower-cost and high-productivity photobioreactors? Which are the companies that are leading the efforts in this domain? What are the likely future trends in photobioreactors?(Source: Wikipedia).
Another related option from water weeds is biogas production with Water Hyacinth(Eichhornia Crassipes)along with animal dung and then run turbines to generate electricity. 1 hectare of weed can produce 100 tons of dry water hyacinth/year which could produce 30,000 cu.m of gas sufficient to supply cooking for 40 families. Also Water Hyacinth(Which has become a menace) can be put to multiple uses.
Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia Crassipes)
Wealth from Waste
Water hyacinth which is generally regarded as a menace can find many uses:
- in food production
- as leaf protein concentrate, which is rich in
protein and vitamin A,
- as a substrate for mushroom cultivation,
- by making soils more fertile which yield better
- by purifying water, in which fish can then thrive,
- through the production of silage, for fattening
- through vermiculture, producing feed for poultry
or fish,
- in regenerating degraded soils,
- as mulch
- as compost
- as fertiliser,produced by mixing with other
organic materials, and phosphate rock,
- in biogas production. The
residual slurry must be used as mulch,
- as briquettes, which can be used for cooking in
kitchens for schools and restaurants,
- in providing employment and income, through
the production and sale of;
• a range of art papers and cards
• crafts and furniture
• (on industrial level), chemicals and liquid
Nutritious Protein from Water Hyacinth:
Leaf Fractionation:
Leaf fractionation produces up to 10 times as much protein per hectare as when the land is used to grow food for animals. It doers not require artificially fixed nitrogen, which is made using a large amount of energy. It is already being used on Lucerne, or alfalfa in France, Hungary and the US to make supplementary feed for pigs and poultry. As Lucerne is a legume, it adds nitrogen to the soil. The process can be applied to almost any fresh green leaves, including weeds such as water hyacinth and nettles. The leaf protein it produces contains no animal fats, and the fibrous residue is an excellent ruminant food.
Feeding trials in 14 countries have shown that regular leaf
concentrate consumption promotes good health and weight gain, increases hemoglobin and vitamin A status, and reduces the frequency and severity of illnesses. One series of trials in which leaf protein was used to supplement the diet of badly nourished children for six months showed that the weight increase was nearly three times as great as that of those whose diet was unaltered (New Scientist,5th April,2000).
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India


A new report this month, under the auspices of the Center for American Progress – a nonprofit, nonpartisan think tank – and Energy Resource Management Corp. (an energy investment firm), states that energy efficiency is one of the most promising paths to jumpstarting the faltering economy and creating jobs.
Called “Efficiency Works”, the 56-page report – highlighted in a conference call by Senator Harry Reid (D-NV) on September 7 – suggests that energy efficiency mandates could create 625,000 new, permanent American jobs.
This estimate, based on retrofitting just 40 percent of the nation’s “energy hog” buildings in both the private and public sector, would save the nation about US$64 billion, which could be pumped back into the economy to create jobs over the next decade. Retrofits to conserve heating and cooling energy would also reduce the nation’s carbon footprint by five percent.
Currently, the report notes, unemployment in the construction trades stands near Depression-era levels, or 25 percent for the entire first quarter of 2010. In the period of 2006-2010, 2.1 million construction-related jobs were lost, with housing starts and other residential construction down by 38 percent.
This means that more than one in three construction workers lost their jobs as the result of this recession. Manufacturing jobs in the wood products sector also fell, by almost a third. These two categories represent some of the best jobs left in America, a nation whose production economy has been increasingly outsourced to countries where cheap labor dominates.
As the report notes, it will take public policy to drive the private sector into investing in energy efficiency, but such mandates at the state level are already paying off. In fact, states with policies mentioned below in place are best positioned to capture more than their market share of the monetary reinvestment and job creation, and also positioned to capitalize on the innovation that creating such a marketplace will inaugurate.
Listing Connecticut, California, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York and five other states as prime markets thanks to their renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy credits, energy efficiency standards for buildings (think New York City’s “green” building measure), utility rate unbundling, and similar policies, the report also states, without chagrin, that the U.S. lags behind Europe (and Asia) in the dollar amount of energy needed to produce every dollar of goods.
If true, and authors Bracken Hendricks, Bill Campbell and Pen Goodale clearly see no reason to doubt it, this means that the nation’s inefficiency is effectively sapping its economy, and reversing that slippery slope is most efficiently done by reducing the amount of energy consumed – a fact backed by a McKinsey & Company study that shows Americans waste US$130 billion in energy each year.
Finally, with no apparent recourse from the current recession, jobs creation – even in the absence of significant energy savings in the near-term – could reverse the three-year downward financial trend that has even seasoned investors shying away from blue chips in favor of junk bonds that, while dicey, offer returns up to eight times greater than money market funds.
If America is addicted to cheap, polluting energy, does the term “scared straight” ring a bell?
More jobs in Renewables in USA
In an interesting article, Renewable energy commitment could double jobs, USA Today, 2-3-2010 Julie Schmit wrote:
The number of clean-energy jobs in the U.S. would more than double by 2025 if the nation adopts a plan to get 25% of its electricity from renewable energy sources, says a report backed by energy firms.
Nationwide, 274,000 jobs would be created in the wind, solar, hydropower, biomass and waste-to-energy industries by 2025 if a 25% standard is adopted, says research firm Navigant Consulting. Those sectors now support about 196,000 jobs.
Navigant did the study for the RES Alliance for Jobs, a consortium of renewable energy companies and others that recommends national renewable electricity targets of 12% in 2014 and 20% in 2020.
Unlike three dozen other countries, including China, the U.S. doesn't have a national standard to drive use of renewable energy, although it's being debated in Congress. President Obama has pushed for 25% renewables by 2025. Meanwhile, 30 states have renewable standards. Five have set goals.
But company executives say state standards are often unenforceable and lack the punch of a national standard that would more forcefully drive use of renewables. That would entice companies to put manufacturing and operations in the U.S. as opposed to other countries, they say.
"We're building this industry right now," says Don Furman, senior vice president of Iberdrola Renewables, a leading wind farm developer. "We're really in a footrace with China and Europe to secure these jobs long term. When you create demand, you really create jobs."
Indeed Renewable Energy is expanding in leaps and bounds, especially in USA, Germany, China, Spain etc. Definitely major chunk of jobs in Renewables is expected in USA.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

China has surpassed the United States in yet another cleantech category: it is installing the first offshore wind farm located outside of Europe.
The 102-megawatt Donghai Wind Farm, located in the East China Sea, off the coast of Shanghai, began transmitting energy to the grid in July. The US$337 million project marks another new cleantech sector China has expanded into. And this projet is just the first of several offshore wind developments -- construction of multiple farms is currently underway.
Offshore wind power development in the United States has been slowed by political debates at the federal and state level, government regulations, environmental assessments, and due diligence. In a watershed moment last April the Cape Wind Project -- America's first offshore wind farm -- was approved by the government after being proposed more than eight years prior, in 2001. Construction of the offshore wind farm located in Cape Cod, Massachusetts has yet to begin.
In regard to China's entry into the offshore wind industry, Peggy Liu, founder and chairwoman of the Joint U.S.-China Collaboration on Clean Energy, noted, "What the U.S. doesn't realize [is that] China is going from manufacturing hub to the clean-tech laboratory of the world."
China will surpass every country in Wind Energy
China has already marching ahead in Wind Energy being next only to USA.
The installed capacity of Windfarms in the top 15 countries are:
USA 36220 MW,China 25805 MW,Germany 25704 MW,Spain 19450 MW,India 11500 MW,Italy 5133 MW,France 4690 MW,UK 4532 MW,Portugal 3725 MW,Denmark 3495 MW,Canada 3432 MW,Netherlands 2227 MW,Japan 2110 MW,Sweden 1560 MW,Australia 1551 MW.
Here is a very interesting report from European Wind Energy Association:

By the European Wind Energy Association:
“Early results from the first offshore wind projects have been promising. In 15 years, wind farms with a total capacity of 1 GW have been erected in the waters of several EU Member States. But it is clear that several barriers remain in the way of a fuller development. If we are to develop offshore wind
power at the level envisioned both by EWEA and some EU Member States, barriers must be removed in a timely fashion. Such barriers and risks include siting and licensing issues, whether projects can be financed, lack of skilled personnel, shortage of appropriate auxiliary services (e.g. crane vessels), grid infrastructure and management needs, technology development requirement, logistical, supply chain gaps and environmental issues.
The report estimates that between 20 GW and 40 GW of offshore wind energy capacity will be operating in the European Union by 2020. A fully developed European offshore wind resource could deliver a capacity of several hundred GW to supply our future energy demands. Developing less than 5% of the North Sea surface area would enable offshore wind to supply roughly one-quarter of the EU’s current electricity needs2. In the period up to 2020, however, the amount of this potential that can be developed is limited by a number of factors; the extent to which the barriers are resolved will determine the capacity that will result. Offshore wind power could meet more than 4% of EU power consumption in 2020 (depending on the effect of energy efficiency measures3), or approximately 50% of EU power production from large hydro power stations today.”
Put the WIND to Work: To get inexhaustible,pollution-free energy which cannot be misused.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India
Wind Energy Expert

Clean energy company, Acta Group, has plans to install a network of solar-powered hydrogen fueling stations throughout Italy.
The company has created a commercial system for converting water to hydrogen using solar energy, which means it can be accessed at fueling stations across the country.
Why Hydrogen? Even though it's emissions-friendly, the components required for its conversion do not come from renewable sources and tend to be highly expensive.
Thankfully, hydrogen fuel has come a long way. Most new technology allows it to work in conjunction with batteries, making it a viable, alternative option (manufacturing concerns notwithstanding). But you won't see it widespread throughout Europe. In fact, Italy seems to be the only country trying this technology out on a mass scale.
In part, Acta is taking advantage of Italy's federal legislation, which requires any new petrol stations to install a minimum of photovoltaic generation capacity (in Tuscany it's 12 kw) and offer gaseous fuel alternatives. Obviously, a solar-hydrogen fuel pump would kill the proverbial two birds with one stone.
It could also promote new industry as well, with more hydrogen fuel cars coming into the markets.
Having entered an implicit agreement with Girelli Bruni -- one of Italy's leading service station installation companies, Acta will be supplying the photovoltaic and integrated hydrogen fuel generators for all new stations.
Hydrogen is the Future Energy Carrier
It is a wonderful application of Solar Energy. I was in Rome for 2 years. Italy voted against Nuclear in a referendum. But Italy gets major portion of electricity from France, which is basically a nuclear energy country.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

According to the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) the world's wind capacity has grown by 40 gigawatts this year despite the financial crisis. The GWEC forecasts installed wind capacity to double between 2010 and 2014.
With the new additions, global wind capacity has increased to 200 gigawatts. The GWEC projects this number to grow to 400 gigawatts by 2014 as a result of industry growth in China, Europe, and the United States.
New, emerging markets are also driving wind power growth worldwide. Steve Sawyer, Secretary General of the Global Wind Energy Council, notes that half the growth is being driven by emerging markets such as Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Northern Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Sawyer states that the tough year for the U.S. wind market has been balanced by industry growth in China. He says this year clearly shows that "overall, wind energy continues to be a growth market, weathering the economic crisi much better tahn some analysts predicted."
Wind is the most promising Green Energy
It is a healthy sign that Wind Energy is advancing leaps and bounds.
Here is an interesting article on Wind Energy Growth:
Global wind energy growth and future outlook
March 15,2010,Renewable Energy Articles(March 10,2010):
As many of you probably know wind power is currently the most popular renewable energy sector that is growing rapidly in the last couple of years. In fact, to be more precise wind power sector showed a remarkable growth rate in 2009 of 31,7 %, which is the highest rate since 2001.
Because of this tremendous growth in wind power industry the worldwide wind power capacity reached 159,213 MW, and almost a quarter of this number (38,312 MW )were added in 2009. If we look at the data from the last decade we can see that installed wind capacity in average doubles every three years.
The growth of wind energy sector has also contributed to many new green jobs in wind industry, and wind energy sector currently employs more than 550,000 people worldwide. Many energy analysts expect that there will be more than one million jobs in wind power industry in 2012 as current trend looks very likely to continue in the next few years.
China is still leading the wind turbine manufacturing market but it also has to be said that Chinese are also doing great job in increasing the wind power capacity with more than respectable 13,800 MW added in the 2009. In fact China has mainly contributed to the largest share of new wind power installations in Asia (40,4 %) on global level. North America for instance had 28,4% of total new wind power installations in 2009.
All wind turbines installed globally by the end of the year 2009 accounted to 340 terawatthours to the worldwide electricity supply which still represents only 2 % of the global electricity demand. Denmark is the country that gets the most of its electricity from the wind of any other country in the world (around 20%), followed by Portugal and Spain that get around 15% of their electricity from the wind.
It should be also noted that the offshore wind energy market has also experienced growth in the 2009, mostly in European countries (Denmark, United Kingdom), and at the end of the 2009 offshore wind capacity accounted for 1,2 % of the total wind capacity worldwide.
Future prospect for wind energy sector looks excellent, and if there won't be any surprises global wind power capacity in 2020 should be around 1,900,000 megawatts. It certainly looks like the wind energy will still lead the way as the most popular renewable energy source in the world.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India


The Thanet Offshore Wind Farm -- officially the world's largest -- opened today off the United Kingdom's east coast near Kent.
Built by Swedish company Vattenfall, the 100 Vestas V90 (3 MW) Turbines provide the farm with the capacity to keep well over 200,000 UK homes running on clean energy year round. More importantly, Thanet's contribution brings the total amount of wind energy produced in the UK to 5 GW.
Maria McCaffery of Renewable UK said that Britain was on the verge of exporting wind powered electricity. “We are expecting to see the contribution of electricity from wind gradually increase over the next decade to around 30%,” she said.
Some Facts About Vattenfall's Thanet Offshore Wind Farm:
• The nearest turbine will be located approx 12km north east of Foreness Point.
• The wind farm will be located in water depths of 20-25m and cover an area of 35km squared.
• Each turbine is 115m tall at its highest point, with a minimum clearance above sea level of 22m.
• The distance between turbines is approximately 500m along rows and 800m between rows.
Britain now has more wind capacity than any other country in the world, which brings due praise from the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) -- and a call for care too.
While the ICE lauds Britain's move to being at the forefront of offshore wind, it also points out that careful, comprehensive leadership is required in implementing such considerably plans in a relatively narrow time line.
Proper framework and fiscal planning will ensure the UK's clean energy longevity and help it avoid the always-possible gaff of "too-much-too-soon".
UK Leader in Off-shore Wind Farms
The United Kingdom became the world leader of offshore wind power generation in October 2008 when it overtook Denmark. Currently it has 1,041 MW of operational nameplate capacity, with a further 1,452 MW in construction. The UK has been estimated to have over a third of Europe's total offshore wind resource, which is equivalent to three times the electricity needs of the nation at current rates of electricity consumption. (In 2010 peak winter demand was 59.3 GW, in summer it drops to about 45 GW). One estimate calculates that wind turbines in one third of UK waters shallower than 25 metres (82 ft) would, on average, generate 40 GW; turbines in one third of the waters between 25 metres (82 ft) and 50 metres (164 ft) depth would on average generate a further 80 GW, i.e. 120 GW in total).An estimate of the theoretical maximum potential of the UK's offshore wind resource in all waters to 700 metres (2,300 ft) depth gives the average power as 2200 GW.
As of September 2010 there were 254 operational onshore wind farms in the UK with a total of 3715MW of nameplate capacity. A further 1123MW of capacity is being constructed, while another 3.5GW of schemes have planning consent and 7.4GW are in the planning stage. In 2009 UK onshore wind farms generated 7,564 GW•h of electricity, this represents a 2% contribution to the total UK electricity generation (378.5 TW•h)(Source: Wikipedia)
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP),India
Wind Energy Specialist

Reports out of South Korea suggest the country is set to make a significant announcement regarding an experimental offshore wind project in the Yellow Sea.
The project is considerable: a US$7.8 billion "proving ground" that will house 200 5-megawatt wind turbines set to be built by 2012. By far the largest project out of South Korea. Also worth noting is this is the first time an announcement has been backed by government confirmation.
A government official asking not to be identified stated that the Yellow Sea site had been chosen for its shallow waters, which would easier, more cost-efficient construction.
The official also added that this was only the beginning of South Korea's renewable energy plans. By 2019, the hope is to have 1,000 wind turbines active off the coasts of theSouth and North Jeolla provinces.
Combined, this could produce 5-gigawatts of electricity per hour -- the equivalent to 4 nuclear power plants, according to the official.
“The government is devising a long-term plan to lower the country’s dependence on fossil fuels to about one-third of all its energy needs by 2030,” an official from the economy ministry said, noting fossil fuels currently make up about half of all energy sources.
All this comes in the light of South Korea's efforts to implement solar energy in Seoul, as well. The hope is to have 20% of the country's energy coming from renewable sources by 2030 -- a dramatic improvement from its current status of 1%.
South Korea to have large Off shore Wind Farms
It is heartening to note that South Korea will be installing large scale off-shore wind farms. South Korea is known for its tremendous industrial growth. With China entering in a big way in off shore wind farms followed by South Korea now,Wind Turbine costs are expected to come down drastically.
This is what India hoping for.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India
Wind Energy Specialist

2,000 villages in Orissa, India will receive their electrical power from "non-conventional" energy sources, the government has announced.
The Orissa State government said the initiative will be complete by 2012. The State plans to utilize biomass, wind, solar, and hydro power to meet its goal. 600 villages will receive their power from solar energy by the end of the year. Eight solar projects, generating 8 megawatts of energy, have been implemented this year.
The state government has also approved nine biomass projects, estimated to produce 118 megawatts of energy. Surveys at 22 potential wind farm locations have also been commissioned; it is estimated the province has the potential to generate 800 megawatts of wind power. Finally, Orissa will produce 300 megawatts of electricity from small and mini hydro projects.
Known as one of the world's largest polluters, India is also one of the world's fastest growing cleantech and renewable energy markets.

Orissa needs more decentralised power

It is interesting to note that Renewables will power will power 2000 villages by 2012. Infact Orissa needs large installations of decentralized power in view of shartage of power and huge transmission and distribution losses.
In an interesting analysis,”Orissa to face 7.4 per cent power deficit in 2010-11: CEA report Jayajit Sash wrote(Business Standard(September 26,2010):
Orissa may have signed Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs) with as many as 27 Independent Power Producers (IPPs) to secure its long-term supply but the state's power deficit position is set to continue at least till the end of the current fiscal.
The state is set to face a shortfall of 1825 million units (MUs) of power in 2010-11 according to the Load Generation Balance Report (LGBR) prepared by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA).
As against the overall demand of 24,795 MUs in this fiscal, the power availability will be 22,970 MUs, thereby creating a deficit of 7.4 per cent.
In the eastern region, Bihar is the only state apart from Orissa which will grapple with power shortfall during 2010-11. Bihar will face a power deficit to the extent of 15.7 per cent. Other states in the region like West Bengal, Jharkhand and Sikkim will in a surplus position.
The eastern region, as a whole, will have an overall energy requirement of 98,451 MUs and the availability will be 101,707 MUs, a surplus of 3256 MUs in 2010-11.
On a pan-India basis, the power deficit has been projected at 10.6 per cent. Out of the total power demand of 876,856 MUs, the power availability will be 784,006 MUs, a deficit of 92,849 Mus.
The CEA report has projected a power deficit for all the state except Delhi, West Bengal, Sikkim and Jharkhand.
Electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution are extremely high and vary between 30 to 45%.In 2004-05, electricity demand outstripped supply by 7-11%. Due to shortage of electricity, power cuts are common throughout India and this has adversely effected the country's economic growth. Theft of electricity, common in most parts of urban India, amounts to 1.5% of India's GDP. Despite an ambitious rural electrification program, some 400 million Indians lose electricity access during blackouts. While 80 percent of Indian villages have at least an electricity line, just 52.5% of rural households have access to electricity. In urban areas, the access to electricity is 93.1% in 2008. The overall electrification rate in India is 64.5% while 35.5% of the population still live without access to electricity. According to a sample of 97,882 households in 2002, electricity was the main source of lighting for 53% of rural households compared to 36% in 1993. Multi Commodity Exchange has sought permission to offer electricity future markets(Source: Wikipedia).
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP), India

To the disappointment of environmental activists, the Obama administration has declined to put solar panels on the White House roof.
The organization, founded by Bill McKibben, has led a campaign to have Barack Obama re-install a set of solar panels which were originally installed on the White House by Jimmy Carter in 1979. The panels are obviously outdated but, according to the campaign, would serve as a symbol of the U.S. government's commitment to a new energy future.
The movement to install solar power on the White House stretched beyond installing symbolic panels. Sungevity, a California-based solar company, has offered to install leading-edge solar panels on the White House for free.
On Friday, McKibben and the rest of the campaigners met with government official outside the White House in Washington. Of the meeting, McKibben explained:
"They refused to take the Carter-era panel that we brought with us and said they would continue their deliberative process to figure out what is appropriate for the White House someday. I told them it would be nice to deliberate as fast as possible, since that is the rate at which the planet's climate is deteriorating."
Read the full story at The Guardian: Barack Obama says 'no' to solar panels on the White House roof
Image credit:
Please reconsider your decision - President Obama


It is hoped President Obama will reconsider his decision not to put solar panels on the White House roof. Infact President Obama has been the most ardent supporter of Renewable Energy Technologies. We, active Renewable Energy Promoters expect President Obama to champion the cause and use of Renewables in USA and elsewhere.
The former President of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam took a initiative by installing solar panel at the roof of the Rashtrapati Bhavan (The Presidential Palace). His dream was to power the Rashtrapati Bhavan entirely with the solar energy but his plans couldn’t see the day of light due to bureaucratic hurdles. However, the Presidential Palace is now slowly moving to a greener future. Solar panels are being installed at various buildings within the Palace and 100 solar-powered streetlights have also been installed. Solar thermal power systems have been installed.
Dr.A.JAGADEESH Nellore (AP), India

An outdoor Mongolian cabinet meeting -- complete with green hats and "Save Our Earth" slogans -- was the stage for an announcement by the coal-abundant country that it may be considering wind energy for export to China.
Save the planet, sure, but as it stands, Mongolia is the fourth largest coal exporter to China in the world. With the expectation of heavy carbon penalties to be levied in the near future, their current arrangement may not be so lucrative.
“While Mongolia has a lot of coal, it is a matter of time before coal-based power plants will become subject to carbon penalties,” said B. Bold, chief executive of Newcom Group, an investment group in the process of building a wind-power-generation plant in Mongolia.
But the financing for endeavors into wind and solar would come at the expense of the going forward with the country's largest mining project -- not exactly an environmentally friendly solution. But what else can a poor, remote country do to garner international notice, and possible investors?
"Mongolia is feeling the impact of global climate change," Prime Minister Batbold Sukhbaatar said at the one-hour meeting, pointing to the recent harsh winter where a fifth of the country's livestock died. Global warming is being blamed for many of the current and new hardships.
Staging the meeting in Gashuunii Khooloi, a sandy valley in South Gobi province, Prime Minister Batbold emphasized the need for a re-assessment of their arrangement with China.
"Five years ago, there used to grow many edible plants in this valley and there were fewer sand dunes. Now look here," he said. "The valley is completely covered with sand. The sand dunes are moving and taking more space each year."
So while the theatrics of wearing slogan-hats made the event a bit like a poorly-funded political rally in a church basement (minus the church basement), the cabinet's discussion of energy was important, alongside other topics of sustainable development and water-shortage.
And you can't fault publicity if it works.
Image credit: tiarescott via Flickr
Argentina and Sri Lanka too have great wind potential

Yes. Mangolia has strong winds. Already 150000 small wind chargers are in operation in Mangolia. Argentina experiences in the mountains very high winds and has estimated potential of 500000 MW.Being an Island Sri Lanka experiences high winds with estimated potential of 50000MW.Argentina and Sri Lanka can think of exploring wind generated electricity. Also Foreign Investment in wind Projects in Argentina and Sri Lanka will expedite the exploitation of wind energy to a large extent.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Two companies offer investors the most direct participation in the race to develop the world’s first 10 megawatt (MW) offshore wind turbines -- American Superconductor Corporation (NASDAQ: AMSC) and Clipper Windpower pls (LON: CWP).
Earlier this week, EBOOM CAPITAL outlined the four groups of companies racing to develop turbines sufficiently large and reliable enough to convert the energy from the globe’s most relentless and powerful offshore winds into renewable and profitable electricity.
Part One: Four Groups Competing to Build World’s First 10 MW Wind Turbine
Part Two: First 10 MW Wind Turbine Prototype Will Operate in Norway in 2011
AMSC and CWP each lead one of the four competing groups and, although there are nine other publicly traded companies participating in the four groups, these nine are mammoth multinationals with their bottom-line financial performances depending on businesses other than wind energy.
AMSC and CWP, therefore, offer investors the best bets to profit -- or not -- by winning the 10 MW turbine race.
Actually, the real attraction of AMSC and CWP is that they are today successful pure plays in the wind energy sector and have business strategies that will keep them successful whether or not they win the 10 MW race.
• The winning company -- meaning the first company to market with an economical and reliable product that takes advantage of the 10 MW scale while overcoming the technical hurdles -- will win the important first-mover advantage in the offshore wind energy boom in Europe and Asia, thus selling more 10 MW turbines sooner, probably at a price well north of $50 million a pop.
• The losing companies may sell fewer or no 10 MW turbines and will need to rely on their mainstream businesses -- and both AMSC and CWP are on trajectories to be very successful without the 10 MW turbine.
American Superconductor
Based in Devens, Massachusetts, AMSC is a power technology company offering a range of technologies and solutions spanning the electric power infrastructure from generation to delivery to end use. However, company founder and CEO Greg Yurek says AMSC’s primary business driver is the fast-growing global wind industry.
AMSC provides proprietary wind turbine designs and production support services to more than a dozen customers in seven countries around the world, including 10 customers in the Asia Pacific region. Each wind turbine produced by these companies utilizes AMSC’s core electrical components and control systems, which serve as the brains of these power generation machines. (The attached image above shows the AMSC "brains" inside the proposed 10 MW Sea Titan wind turbine.)
AMSC said in June 2010 that it had achieved a significant milestone by supporting the production of more than 15,000 MW of wind power worldwide with its proprietary power electronic solutions. This amount of zero-emission electricity is sufficient to power approximately 4.5 million U.S. households and represents nearly 10 percent of the world's 158,000 MW of wind power installed as of the end of 2009.
Unfortunately, some leading wind energy companies, such as sector giant Vestas Wind (PINK: VWDRY), have had revenues and profits fall this year -- and this has reflected badly on all wind energy companies, including AMSC. The company’s share price is down 32 percent this year despite strong revenue and profit growth the past two quarters.
On August 17, 2010, AMSC announced it was taking a 25 percent equity interest in private-stage United Kingdom wind turbine blade designer/manufacturer Blade Dynamics Ltd. The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW), through its Venture Capital group, also made a minority equity investment in Blade Dynamics.
AMSC founder and Chief Executive Officer Greg Yurek commented: “Blade Dynamics presents us - and the entire wind industry - with a game-changing wind turbine blade technology that enhances performance and reduces weight and cost for high power wind turbines. We view this as a compelling investment and expect many wind turbine manufacturers, including our own AMSC Windtec licensees, to quickly migrate to the Blade Dynamics solution to avail themselves of these competitive advantages."
In Q1 2010 (ended June 30), AMSC had net income of $9.2 million on revenues of $97.2 million, compared with Q4 2009 net income of $4.9 million on revenues of $87.6 million and Q1 2009’s net income of $1.8 million on revenues of $73 million.
Clipper Windpower plc
CWP is based in Carpinteria, California, and listed on the London Stock Exchange’s AIM market. The company is engaged in the design, engineering and manufacturing of wind turbines and developing wind energy projects, including engineering, construction and plant operation. CWP’s only turbine product, the 2.5 MW Liberty wind turbine, is manufactured at the company’s factory in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
Because it is listed on AIM, the company is not required to disclose its 2010 interim financial performance until later this month. In 2009, the company lost $241.5 million (-$1.86 per share) on revenues of $743.5 million primarily from the sale of 259 wind turbines. In 2008, CWP lost $313.3 million (-$2.56 per share) on revenue of $737.4 million.
CWP’s business and technology received an important validation and powerful strategic partner in January 2010 when United Technologies Inc. (NYSE: UTX) injected $270 million of equity capital in return for 49.5 percent of the company.
• Since then, Clipper and UTX have formed teams to enable Clipper to access UTX’s support and expertise in a number of areas, including technology, sales, manufacturing, product quality and other industrial processes. These efforts include a relationship with UTX subsidiary Pratt & Whitney Power Systems, a manufacturer and distributor of gas turbine power plants, that will enable Clipper to leverage the Pratt & Whitney’s distribution network to sell and service Clipper’s 2.5 MW Liberty turbine, as well as provide integrated turnkey project solutions, to global customers. The relationship expands Clipper’s market reach from predominantly U.S. based, to major global economies and emerging markets.
• In July 2010, UTX’s support of CWP was underscored when the two companies agreed that UTX would guarantee Clipper wind turbines warranties for selected new business.
So far this year, it seems UTX is more enthused about CWP’s potential than other investors. The company’s shares are down 74.5 percent year to date, but up 13 percent over the past month.
With CWP’s share price in the basement and UTX getting more deeply involved in the company, can a UTX offer for 100 percent of CWP be far behind?
Image credit: American Superconductor Corporation
Big is Bountiful!
Today on the one side we have nano, micro and on the other side macro and mega. Americans always believe in THINK BIG. Wind energy especially Offshore Windfarms are expanding at a fast rate. Advantages of Offshore Windfarms as advocated by American Wind Energy Association are:
Eight countries have wind turbines installed offshore providing clean, renewable electricity: Denmark, Belgium, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Ireland. Additional countries with offshore
projects planned by 2015 include France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain.
No offshore wind projects have been built in the U.S., although a number of projects are moving through the development process. And in May 2008, the U.S.
Department of Energy’s report on a 20% wind energy scenario found offshore wind capacity could be 54 GW of the 300 GW envisioned. Offshore wind energy brings
all of the positive economic and environmental benefits of onshore development, as well as some unique characteristics.
Access to resource
o Offshore wind turbines generate more power than on-shore turbines because wind speeds are generally higher and the wind is steadier offshore.
o Wind tends to be less turbulent offshore, reducing wear on turbines.
o Larger turbines, which can capture more wind energy, are feasible offshore because transportation is easier via water.
o Allows shorter transmission lines to load centers and avoids some congestion bottlenecks by transmitting power from east to west.
o Offshore wind turbines can generate energy during times of high electricity use because of the “sea breeze effect.”
Relationship to customer demand
o Offshore wind farms can generate energy near population centers.
o Offshore power production will alleviate some transmission bottlenecks by transmitting power in closer proximity to demand.
Economic opportunities
o Offshore wind development could spur assembly and transport activities in coastal cities.
o Offshore wind power provides green jobs and contributes to a clean technology economy.
Best option for large-scale renewable energy development in some Places
o Some states, especially in the Northeast, enjoy a large and strong offshore wind resource, with very limited opportunities to develop on land.
o Public Policy Benefits – wind energy provides a great way for states to reach their required Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS).
Impacts are limited
o Compatible with existing uses – an offshore wind park will promote recreational fishing, as it can continue among the turbines.
o Foundations can create artificial reefs.
o Extensive studies at European sites have revealed no significant bird impacts and that, for the most part, birds avoid wind farms
Taiwan has ambitious plans to set up offshore windfarms.
The bigger Wind turbines of capacity 10 MW and more will certainly pave the way to supplement conventional Energy Sources like coal and petroleum in a big way.
It is hoped India being in the 5th position in Wind Energy in the world, enters the field of offshore wind farms.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India.

Setting its plans for 6,000 megawatt (MW) of offshore wind by 2020 in motion, France is now seeking US$13 billion in bids for the first phase.
Environment and Energy Minister, Jean-Louis Borloo is set to make the official announcements next month, issuing tenders for 600 offshore turbines -- to be built in five-to-ten designated areas (yet to be determined) in Brittany, Normandy, Pays de la Loire, and Languedoc.
It was only a matter of time France before jumped on board with offshore wind, considering the successful offshore efforts of neighboring UK, Scotland, and Denmark.
Current estimated costs for offshore wind run about $3 million per MW, which means the upfront investment is considerable. An official from the Environment and Energy Ministry said the tender process will determine engineering costs which, in turn, will set the price of energy to be sold to French utilities.
But it shouldn't be a problem for the EU state to procure interested developers. Companies like GFD Suez, currently working on France's first offshore wind farm, the 705MW Compagnie du Vent [pdf] development nine miles offshore of Le Trepor, are likely eager to place their bids.
France has largely relied on nuclear energy for the country's needs, but a recent $1.7 billion renewable energy package shows an interest (both economical and environmental) toward renewable alternatives.
Offshore Wind Energy expanding
It is heartening to note that France will be setting up 6000 MW offshore wind farms by 2020. What is more important is that France being a nuclear country tending more towards Renewables.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (TYO:6764) and public transport operator Ryobi Group, have unveiled the world’s first solar-powered public transport bus to commemorate Ryobi’s 100th anniversary.
Solarve, which stands for Solar Vehicle, is a diesel-electric hybrid bus equipped with several roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) panels. The panels are made with Sanyo’s crystalline and light and flexible amorphous silicon cells.
According to the company website, "Sanyo HIT technology combines a thin monocrystalline silicon layer encased in ultra-thin amorphous silicon layers, providing solar cell efficiencies of up to 20.2 percent and an overall panel efficiency of over 17.7 percent." The generated power will provide continuous lighting to the interior LED lamps for up to nine hours.
The system will also run portable air purifiers as well. Eafuressha Eneloop units will help provide cleaner air and give bus passengers a more comfortable ride. According to Sanyo’s website, the units help filter about 99 percent of viruses, floating bacteria, allergens and dirt from the cabin air.
The restored bus is also equipped with four cameras placed at the top of both sides of the bus. The multi-angle vision system, developed by the Fujitsu Group, displays a 3D birds-eye view of the vehicle from different vantage points. Natural materials were used in the bus when possible.
The solar-powered bus is expected to roll out today in Okayama City, Japan.
Image courtesy of Sanyo
Next is Solar Train!?
Another application of High cost energy. It may work in the west where dust is not a major problem. In Developing countries even roof top solar panels are a luxury and application limited.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh, Nellore (AP), India

India has approved 1,000 megawatts (MW) worth of solar projects, while across the ocean the final approval of the United States' largest solar power plant is on the horizon.
Today, India's New and Renewable Energy Minister Farooq Abdullah announced 1,000 megawatts of solar power will installed by 2013. 500 megawatts will come from photovoltaic resources, while the other 500 megawatts will come from solar thermal projects. India plans to have generate 20,000 MW of solar power by 2020.
Over 2,000 applications for 5 MW photovoltaic projects have been submitted to the ministry. Currently, the government is paring through the applications to pick the best 100 applications.
Meanwhile in California, the New York Times reports, federal regulators are nearing approval of the 1,000 MW Blythe Solar Power Project. This solar thermal project's energy output would be capable of powering 800,000 homes. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) issued a final environmental impact statement for the project-- considered the last hurdle before final approval.
According to the BLM's Holly Roberts, approval could come in October: "We're already beginning work on the record of decision, our hope is to package it all together for one big signing."
Wind Vs Solar in India
While appreciating the move of Indian Government to go in for 20,000 MW of Solar by 2020, one wonders is it a wise choice of tapping Renewable Energy compared to Wind Energy?.
In India the most successful Renewable Energy is Wind. Here are some countries which have large Wind Installations.
As on 31st March 2010
No. Country Capacity
1 USA 36220
2 China 25805
3 Germany 25704
4 Spain 19450
5 India 11500
6 Italy 5133
7 France 4690
8 UK 4532
9 Portugal 3725
10 Denmark 3495
11 Canada 3432
12 Netherlands 2227
13 Japan 2110
14 Sweden 1560
15 Australia 1551
16 Ireland 1381
17 Greece 1185
18 Turkey 1030
19 Austria 995
20 Poland 794
21 Brazil 740
22 Belgium 563
The advantages of Wind Farms are:
1. They are modular
2. Installation period is less
3. Efficiency is high compared to Solar PV.
4. Off shore Wind farms can be set up which are becoming popular.
Here is an interesting analysis on Wind Energy and Emissions:
The Facts About Wind Energy and Emissions
Anti-wind groups are attempting to defy the laws of physics with their claims. by Michael Goggin, AWEA
Published: September 1, 2010 Washington, DC, United States
"-- Recent data and analyses have made it clear that the emissions savings from adding wind energy to the grid are even larger than had been commonly thought. In addition to each kilowatt-hour (kWh) of wind energy directly offsetting a kWh that would have been produced by a fossil-fired power plant, new analyses show that wind plants further reduce emissions by forcing the most polluting and inflexible power plants offline and causing them to be replaced by more efficient and flexible types of generation.
At the same time, and in spite of the overwhelming evidence to the contrary, the fossil fuel industry has launched an increasingly desperate misinformation campaign to convince the American public that wind energy does not actually reduce carbon dioxide emissions. As a result, we feel compelled to set the record straight on the matter, once and for all.
Perplexed at how anyone would attempt to make that claim, AWEA decided to take a look at the relevant data, namely the U.S. Department of Energy’s data tracking emissions from Colorado’s power plants over time. The government’s data, reproduced in the table below, show that as wind energy jumped from providing 2.5% of Colorado’s electricity in 2007 to 6.1% of the state’s electricity in 2008, carbon dioxide emissions fell by 4.4%, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide emissions fell by 6%, coal use fell by 3% (571,000 tons), and electric-sector natural gas use fell by 14%. (Thorough DOE citations for each data point are listed here (PDF).) Two conclusions were apparent from looking at this data: 1. the claim the fossil fuel industry was planning to make had no basis in fact, and 2. the fossil industry was understandably frustrated that they were losing market share to wind energy.
Change in Colorado Power Plant Fossil Fuel Use and Emissions from 2007-2008, as Wind Jumped from Providing 2.5% to 6.1% of Colorado Electricity
In early April, AWEA publicly presented this government data, and when the fossil fuel lobbyists released their report later that month it was greeted with the skepticism it deserved and largely ignored. Case closed, right? We thought so, too.
As a conservative hypothetical example, adding 100 MW of wind energy output to the grid might cause a fossil plant to go from producing 500 MW at 1000 pounds of CO2 per megawatt-hour (MWh) (250 tons of CO2 per hour) to producing 400 MW at 1010 pounds of CO2/MWh (202 tons of CO2 per hour), so the net impact on emissions from adding 100 MW of wind would be CO2 emissions reductions of 48 tons per hour. Unfortunately, fossil-funded groups have focused nearly all of their attention on Factor B, which in this example accounts for 2 tons, while completely ignoring the 50 tons of initial emissions reductions associated with Factor A. A conservative estimate is that the impact of Factor B is at most a few percent of the emissions reductions achieved through factor A."
Compared to Wind Installations around the Globe,Solar Energy is nowhere. The primary reason is its low efficiency.
The disadvantages of Solar are:
•The initial cost is the main disadvantage of installing a solar energy system, largely because of the high cost of the semi-conducting materials used in building one.
•The cost of solar energy is also high compared to non-renewable utility-supplied electricity. As energy shortages are becoming more common, solar energy is becoming more price-competitive.
•Solar panels require quite a large area for installation to achieve a good level of efficiency.
•The efficiency of the system also relies on the location of the sun, although this problem can be overcome with the installation of certain components.
•The production of solar energy is influenced by the presence of clouds or pollution in the air.
•Similarly, no solar energy will be produced during nighttime although a battery backup system and/or net metering will solve this problem. See for details on how net metering allows you to save electricity and money.
In my view developing countries can wait till efficient solar cells are available with improved materials like gallium arsenide,tandem,gallium phosphide,organic polymer etc.
For the investment of 20,000 MW of solar power, one need not wait till 2020; one can go in for Wind Farms of capacity 20,000 MW in India in less than 5 years provided the finances are available and at much lower cost compared to Solar.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

France has unveiled a new renewable energy investment program which will see the government provide €1.35 billion to support the development of cutting-edge clean energy technologies.
The program, titled Renewable Energy and Green Chemistry Demonstration, will offer €450 million in subsidies and €900 million in low-interest loans over the next four years for new technology projects.
In particular the new government initiative will focus on financing emerging technologies which face high startup costs. Such technologies include advanced biofuels, and marine, geothermal, and solar energy. Until now, the government has focused on funding the more established nuclear and wind sectors.
The government is seeking an additional €2 billioninvestment from the private sector for the Renewable Energy and Green Chemistry Demonstration program.
This may only be the beginning of a set of new renewable energy investment plans from the French government. According to Bloomberg Finance, the country is preparing to roll out a €1 billion green transport program as well as a €250 million smart grid program.
Read the full story at France launches €1.35bn renewable energy package
Image credit: Al Ianni via Flickr
Need for Creation of Renewable Energy Fund in India
It is a welcome sign that France has unveiled a new renewable energy investment program which will see the government provide €1.35 billion to support the development of cutting-edge clean energy technologies. All the more it is important that such a move for Renewable Energy has come from basically a nuclear power country like France. This shows the recognition of many countries about the need to promote Clean Energy Technologies. There is growing activity in India in Renewable Energy. Hitherto 80% Depreciation is given to Industrialists who start renewable Energy Projects like Wind. The same facility can be extended to Individual income tax payers under section 80C so that Wind Activity will become mass based. In Denmark (with a population of about 5.5 million) there are "Wind Farm Co-operatives". Almost every 5th person in Denmark is partner in Wind Turbines that are operating. Creation of a WIND FUND and WIND FARM CO-OPERATIVES will go a long way in the expansion of Wind Farms in India five fold.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India
Wind Energy Expert


Data from a new Michigan State University study shows that employees working in "green" buildings are more productive and take less sick days.
The researchers conducted two case studies in Michigan. In each study they discovered that workers who moved from conventional buildings to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design-buildings reported noticeable reductions in absenteeism and stress. Employees also stated they were more productive as a result of a perceived improvements in health and well-being.
The study is published in the American Journal of Public Health.
Green buildings are becoming a norm within the engineering sector, and can be found throughout the world. For instance, London's newly constructed Strata Tower boasts built-in wind turbines, while the United States' National Renewable Energy Laboratory just opened a zero-energy building.
Read the full story at Michigan State University: Workers say 'green' buildings boost productivity
Green Buildings Better for Employee Productivity and Health

In an interesting article, How Office Space Can Affect Productivity Nikki Maidment brings out lucidly the relationship between office space and productivity (Ezine @rticles):
“Numerous studies and surveys have been carried out into the area, including the world renowned Hawthorne effect experiments, and all of these have highlighted the importance of having a well designed work environment that incorporates numerous aspects, from office plants and greenery to open plan and communal areas to name but a few. By incorporating these aspects into your work space as well as using an innovative and well thought out office space design not only will your employees feel happier in their work environment but you will have a greater sense of pride in your highly valuable business asset.
So what does make the perfect work place? Office spaces should be communication friendly, allowing for a flow of creativity and the testing of ideas in a less formal manner between employees. This openness will also promote good employee relationships allowing your workers to not only talk to their co-workers but also develop worthwhile relationships. This will leave them feeling more fulfilled and happier in their working environment. We visited an office space Oxford who had adopted this style to get a few opinions, and found that the employees agreed that the open plan space fostered their creativity and gave the feel of a fun and friendly office, whilst still providing a good working environment.
Another key aspect that will make any work place feel more vibrant and fresh is greenery, whether you are lucky enough to benefit from nice views and natural greenery, or you incorporate this into your office space using potted plants and flowers. Even if your work environment is located in a busy and bustling city centre, like the office space Bournemouth that I visited, it is still possible to achieve this through large windows not covered by curtains or blinds and good lighting giving a sunny feel.
When you look at the aspects that we now think promote workplace productivity and efficiency, such as the few I have mentioned above, you will notice the stark contrast to the offices of the past. From the archetypal 'cubicles' seen in many older films to the overpowering boss shrouded in their private office, this move towards office space that works on a flat hierarchal design seems to not only foster productivity and in turn business success but also the happiness of your employees as individuals”.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP), India


With unemployment on everyone’s mind, the Obama administration has been touting “green” projects as a source of new jobs. Now the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) has confirmed that some government programs can do just that -- create jobs.
Recently the SEIA released an independent study predicting that extending the government’s Treasury Grant Program (TGP) and Solar Manufacturing Investment Tax Credit by two years will create an additional 200,000 new American jobs.
Extending TGP will also create 10 gigawatts of new solar installation by 2016 – enough to power 2 million homes. A recent study by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory also found that TGP “has provided significant economic value” and predicted high employment levels in renewable energy industries.
“Unemployment across the country remains near 10 percent, while the construction industry is suffering at nearly 22 percent unemployment,” said Rhone Resch, President and CEO of SEIA.
“But during the last year, the solar industry has been one of the bright spots in our economy with the creation of 17,000 new jobs. These jobs were created by the Recovery Act, and it’s time for Congress to extend the programs that have given new opportunity for Americans in the solar industry.”
The study also predicted which states would gain the most jobs from the increased solar work: California (60,000 new jobs); Michigan (24,000 new jobs); Ohio, Oregon and Texas gaining over 13,000 new jobs each; Arizona, Colorado, and Florida each gaining roughly 10,000 new jobs; Massachusetts, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Washington each adding about 5,000 new jobs; Nevada, New Jersey, and Tennessee each adding more than 3,000 new jobs; and Connecticut and Hawaii each adding more than 1,500 new jobs.
“The clean energy grant program created in last year’s stimulus bill allowed enough renewable energy to come on-line to power four cities the size of Seattle and create over 140,000 new jobs,” said Senator Maria Cantwell (D-WA).
“Extension of the Treasury Grant program is essential to continuing our nascent economic recovery and moving to a cleaner, more distributed 21st century energy system. Tens of thousands of jobs hinge on continuing this successful program, including thousands of new solar jobs in Washington State in the next two years. These are high-paying jobs that our economy needs.”
Clean Energy Jobs
The way Solar power is advancing in USA,it will certainly create number of jobs in the coming years.
Andy Stevenson’s Blog, Putting America First in the Clean Energy Jobs Race ( SwiTchboard, Natural Resources Defence Council Staff Blog February 4, 2010) has interesting forecast on Clean Energy Jobs in USA:
“The United States Senate is considering policy that has the power to reinvigorate the economy, create millions of American jobs, increase our energy security and open up vast new exports markets for American-made products. That policy is comprehensive energy and climate legislation. We need the Senate to unite behind this legislation to put America first in the clean energy jobs race.
The Next Great Global Industry
The clean energy industry offers significant growth opportunities for American businesses. Under a global policy aimed at keeping carbon concentrations below 450ppm, clean energy investments are forecast to exceed $13 trillion over the next two decades. This represents an eighty-five fold increase in clean energy investment relative to today and five-fold increase over business as usual forecasts though 2030 - investments that pay for themselves in lower energy costs and are expected to directly benefit US manufacturers of cleaner cars, cleaner fuels, and cleaner power (see table below) and companies involved in improving industrial, power plant, and building efficiency.
The industries listed above represent enormous opportunities for energy investors in the twenty-first century. The U.S. has the technology edge in these markets if we act now.
For example, the increase in demand for cleaner cars offers a multi-trillion dollar opportunity for American auto manufacturers. Under policies aimed at cutting emissions for the global car fleet in half, US manufacturers of hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and electric cars are expected to see their markets grow substantially over the next two decades as global demand for these vehicles reaches nearly 800 million units. This is a far better outcome for domestic manufacturers than under business as usual where internal combustion engines remain dominant and production continues to flow to the lowest cost producer countries.
Jobs for Americans - But Time is of the Essence
We have an opportunity to create 1.9 million new clean energy jobs in America by 2020 under a comprehensive clean energy and climate bill, but only if we act now. According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, China is currently ranked number one in clean energy asset investment and last year outspent the US nearly three to one on new build renewable energy projects.
If we continue to delay our own commitment to the clean energy economy, U.S. will lose our competitive position in global markets for products that were originally developed here with U.S. research dollars. Instead of leading the clean energy market, we will be reduced to dependence on foreign alternative energy products”.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Cogentrix Energy intends to build the world's largest concentrating photovoltaic solar power plant in the United States.
The 30,000 kilowatt facility will be located in southern Colorado. The solar power plant will use 225 acres of land while producing enough electricity to power 6,500 homes. Cogentrix expects construction of the project to be complete by the spring of 2012.
According to Cogentrix concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) solar power is the most efficient solar technology on the market for large-scale projects. CPV produces more energy per acre than photovoltaic solar panels and solar thermal power. Additionally, southern Colorado is considered one of the most ideal solar spots in the United States with its high altitude and abundant sunshine.
Cogentrix has a 20-year power purchase agreement in place with Public Service Company of Colorado.
Tom Bonner, President of Cogentrix Energy says this project fits the company's mission: "Our focus has always been on developing quality power generation facilities that deliver reliable power to our customers. We're pleased that our Alamos Solar Generating project continues in that tradition."

Concentrated Photovoltaic - Future Energy option
It is heartening to note COGENTRIX WILLBUILD WORLD'S LARGEST CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR POWER PLANT southern Colorado. Here is an interesting account on Concentrated Photovoltaics: 5 Surprising Facts About Concentrated Photovoltaics Sarah Lozanova (triplepundit people planet profit | January 7th, 2009) ."Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) technology is one of the newest players on the solar energy scene. These systems are unique because sunlight is concentrated through a lens onto high performance solar cells, thus increasing the electricity generated. Panels are mounted on tracking systems to maximize the benefit of each ray of sunlight. SolFocus, a solar startup based in California has designed a promising CPV panel for medium to utility-scale applications. Let’s explore some of the impressive characteristics of SolFocus’ 1100S: Most Efficient PV Panel on the Market Scientific journals are full of reports of recent advances in solar cell efficiency. Although this is very encouraging, it is hard to know how these breakthroughs will perform outside of the laboratories and when they will hit the market. SolFocus says that it has the most efficient panel available on the market today. The panel efficiency of their 1100S system is 25%. Keep in mind that panel efficiency is different from cell efficiency. Panel efficiency considers the panel as a whole and is lower than cell efficiency. Increased efficiency will decrease the cost of solar energy. Lower manufacturing costs, fewer raw materials, and less land will be needed to generate the same amount of energy. Dual Land Use According to SolFocus, one megawatt of panels requires 6 to 8 acres of land. CPV panels are mounted on tracking systems, allowing for the land underneath to be utilized as well. Shade crops can be cultivated under the solar panels, increasing the diversity of crops that can be cultivated in sunny regions. Over 95% Recyclable The solar industry has been criticized for creating a product that is difficult to recycle. Although the useful life of a solar panel is around 30 years, it is important to consider this while designing the product. SolFocus panels has achieved high rates because the two main materials used are glass and aluminum. Energy Payback of 6+ Months In the 1970′s, manufacturing a solar panel required as much energy as the panel would generate over its 20 year lifespan. That means that older solar panels didn’t result in any net energy gain. “Solar power has been criticized in the past” for requiring too much energy to produce, said Vasilis M. Fthenakis of the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, N.Y. “But what we find out is that those criticisms are not true with the new technologies.” The four popular kinds of solar cells: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride have an energy payback between 1 and 3 years. Certainly solar technology has come a long way, but SolFocus is leading the industry with panels that boast an energy payback of just over 6 months".
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Keeping with the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) architectural aesthetic appeal, a new proposal for a field of solar ribbon dubbed the "Light Sanctuary", both plays the role of contemplative art and takes advantage of Dubai's desert solar potential.
Solar Ribbon Design?
Designers, Decker Yeadon New York, are working with a "mirage" concept, winding out some 40 kilometers of solar ribbon to create over 80,000 square meters of solar surface area.
Each panel stands 10 meters high when installed vertically and is comprised of a thin-film, organic dye-sensitive solar cell (DSSC).

According to Decker Yeadon, these panels are designed with the native environment in mind. Unlike conventional silicon cells, the DSSC's can absorb light across 140 degrees relative to its surface -- a considerable improvement.
The panels also have a natural flexibility which allows them to vibrate and remove collected debris, like desert sand and grit brought in by winds.
Will it Save the World?
Nope, but it's certainly not impractical either. At the end of the day, this means longer periods of light absorption over larger surface areas.
This does not mean better solar efficiency on a grand scale or a worldwide solution to energy consumption. But the suggested technology suggests an important imperative: taking local environment into account and finding a way to maximize its potential.
The Light Sanctuary is a great example of functional art. If installed it could generate around 4592 Mwh annually, a notable contribution to the UAE's electrical grid -- not to mention its considerably energy consumption.
Image credit: Inhabitat
String Ribbon Technology

About String Ribbon Technology
In the String Ribbon technique, high temperature strings are pulled vertically through a shallow silicon melt, and the molten silicon spans and freezes between the strings to form a ribbon of silicon. Each pair of strings produces a single ribbon. The process is continuous: long strings are unwound from spools; the melt is replenished; and the silicon ribbon is cut into strips for further processing, without interrupting growth. This advantage in material efficiency means String Ribbon can yield over twice as many solar cells per pound of silicon as conventional methods. This technique embodies the efficient material utilization and potential for continuous processing of thin films, but with a more manufacturable process. String Ribbon is one of the most material and energy-efficient and environmentally friendly crystalline silicon processes in the industry.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


A lot of attention is focused on exciting new technologies that create energy from new sources. But, some of the most thrilling developments in energy technology come in the form of improving on existing technologies.
Case in point: recently the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has invented a new air condition process which could use 50% to 90% less energy than today’s best air conditioners.

The NREL process relies in part on evaporative cooling, a process in which water flows over a mesh screen while a fan blows over the water, evaporating it – in the process cooling and moisturizing the air. This system is used as a lower-cost alternative to air conditioning in areas of the U.S. that aren’t too hot and humid such as Colorado.
NREL’s idea is to combine evaporative cooling with desiccants which will dry the air out. The desiccant and the evaporative cooling work together to create cool, dry air. NREL’s DEVap system uses thin membranes to integrate air flow, desiccants, and evaporative cooling.
Regular air conditioners also use a lot of electricity to run their refrigeration cycle, but DEVap replaces that refrigeration cycle with an absorption cycle that is thermally activated. It can be powered by natural gas or solar energy and uses very little electricity. DEVap also avoids the use of hydrofluorocarbons which create green house gas emissions.


Air cum water cooler

It is interesting to find that Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has invented a new air condition process which could use 50% to 90% less energy than today’s best air conditioners. I have designed a simple air cum water cooling system for less humid areas. It is common sight in developing countries people tie canvas bags with water outside the train compartment and before trucks. EVAPORATION PRODUCES COOLING. Water gets cooled as canvas has pores. I designed a system of two canvas bags with water tied to stands with table fan behind it. In this process water inside the canvas bags get cooled at the same time room gets cooled. One can take away the cold water inside the canvas bags for drinking purpose. If one wants more cooled water, one can put 10 canvas bags (of capacity 2or 3 litres capacity each) and put them in semi circular fashion with a stand putting the table fan in oscillatory motion. After couple of hours this water can be transferred to a big container. This way small restaurants in rural areas can get natural cooled drinking water.Ofcourse this system works in less humid areas. The whole system is cost effective.

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

Air cum Water Cooler(Please Open the Images in a new tab and Maximize it & watch to be able to view or read the Article Clearly)
Designed by


The state-of-the-art Archimede power plant in Italy represents a paradigm shift in the development of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants.
Located in Sicily and operated by the utility ENEL (BIT:ENEL), Archimede is a 5 megawatt CSP plant that uses molten salts to capture the heat generated by the sun's energy. Archimede is the world's first concentrating solar power plant to use molten salts to capture heat. Most conventional CSP plants use pressurized oil to capture heat and molten salts to store heat so the plant can run during the night or on days where there is no sun.
However, molten salts have several advantages over pressurized oil. First, they can operate at higher temperatures (550°C instead of 390°C). This means the power output and energy efficiency of concentrating solar power plants will be increased. Using molten salts for both heat capture and storage will allow a CSP plant to run 24 hours a day for multiple days without sun.
Additionally, the non-toxic, cheap molten salts are safer for the environment than oil. Finally, using molten salts allows the steam turbines used in the CSP process to operate at the standard pressure/temperature regulations that fossil fuel plants run on -- meaning conventional power plants could easily be retrofitted to be CSP plants.
Although relatively expensive, 60 million euros, Archimede represents the future of CSP technology.
Read the full story at The Guardian: The world's first molten salt concentrating solar power plant
Image credit: afloresm via Flickr

Different forms of Solar Energy Storage


There are different forms of storage of Solar Power.
Heat storage
Heat storage allows a solar thermal plant to produce electricity at night and on overcast days. This allows the use of solar power for baseload generation as well as peak power generation, with the potential of displacing both coal and natural gas fired power plants. Additionally, the utilization of the generator is higher which reduces cost.
Heat is transferred to a thermal storage medium in an insulated reservoir during the day, and withdrawn for power generation at night. Thermal storage media include pressurized steam, concrete, a variety of phase change materials, and molten salts such as sodium and potassium nitrate.
Molten salt storage
A variety of fluids have been tested to transport the sun's heat, including water, air, oil, and sodium, but molten salt was selected as best. Molten salt is used in solar power tower systems because it is liquid at atmosphere pressure, it provides an efficient, low-cost medium in which to store thermal energy, its operating temperatures are compatible with today's high-pressure and high-temperature steam turbines, and it is non-flammable and nontoxic. In addition, molten salt is used in the chemical and metals industries as a heat-transport fluid, so experience with molten-salt systems exists in non-solar settings.
The molten salt is a mixture of 60 percent sodium nitrate and 40 percent potassium nitrate, commonly called saltpeter. The salt melts at 220 °C (430 °F) and is kept liquid at 290 °C (550 °F) in an insulated storage tank. The uniqueness of this solar system is in de-coupling the collection of solar energy from producing power, electricity can be generated in periods of inclement weather or even at night using the stored thermal energy in the hot salt tank. Normally tanks are well insulated and can store energy for up to a week. As an example of their size, tanks that provide enough thermal storage to power a 100-megawatt turbine for four hours would be about 30 feet tall and 80 feet in diameter.
The Andasol power plant in Spain is the first commercial solar thermal power plant to utilize molten salt for heat storage and nighttime generation. It came online March 2009.
Graphite heat storage
The proposed power plant in Cloncurry Australia will store heat in purified graphite. The plant has a power tower design. The graphite is located on top of the tower. Heat from the heliostats goes directly to the storage. Heat for energy production is drawn from the graphite. This simplifies the design.
Molten salts coolants are used to transfer heat from the reflectors to heat storage vaults. The heat from the salts are transferred to a secondary heat transfer fluid via a heat exchanger and then to the storage media, or alternatively, the salts can be used to directly heat graphite. Graphite is used as it has relatively low costs and compatibility with liquid fluoride salts. The high mass and volumetric heat capacity of graphite provide an efficient storage medium (Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Did you know that offshore wind power turbines generate more power than on-shore turbines because wind speeds are generally higher and the wind is steadier offshore?
Here's another 10 great reasons offshore wind power might be one of our best investments in a carbon-free world:
1. Offshore wind tends to be less turbulent offshore, reducing wear on turbines.
2. Larger turbines, which can capture more wind energy, are feasible offshore because transportation is easier via water.
3. Offshore wind turbines can generate energy during times of high electricity use because of the “sea breeze effect.”
4. Offshore wind farms can generate energy near population centers.
5. Compatible with existing uses – an offshore wind park will promote recreational fishing, as it can continue among the turbines.
6. Currently in Europe, 1471 MW of offshore wind turbines generate electricity 70 – 90% of the time.
7. In the US, some states, especially in the Northeast, enjoy a large and strong offshore wind resource, with very limited opportunities to develop on land.
8. in May 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy’s report on a 20% wind energy scenario found offshore wind capacity could be 54 GW of the 300 GW envisioned.
9. Eight countries have wind turbines installed offshore providing clean, renewable electricity: Denmark, Belgium, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Ireland.
10. Offshore wind power provides green jobs and contributes to a clean technology economy.
I found most of this information on a great fact sheet prepared by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), you can download the PDF here: Offshore Wind Energy Fact Sheet

China has also Offshore Wind Farms

SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON THU, 2010-07-15 02:52.
One country missing from the list of Wind farms is China. Here is an account of Wind farms and future wind farm plans in China. China’s first offshore wind farm has begun transmitting electricity this week, one month after the turbines were connected to the national grid. The 2.3bn yuan ($340m), 102MW project near Shanghai East Sea Bridge may generate 267 million kWh of power a year, providing electricity to about 200,000 Shanghai households and reducing 200,000 tonnes of CO2. The 34 wind turbines were supplied by China’s biggest wind turbine maker Sinovel, which began building the wind farm in September 2008 and completed construction in February this year. Electricity produced has been sent to the Shanghai World Expo site before it is distributed to the households, according to Sinovel. A 100MW second phase of the project on the west side of the bridge has received approval from the local authorities. China’s exploitable wind energy is estimated at 750GW offshore and 250GW onshore. The Chinese government aims to have 30GW of offshore wind capacity installed by 2020. Public bidding is currently underway in the country for four offshore wind power projects in Jiangsu Province for a combined capacity of 1GW. The bidding started in May and is expected to end in September this year. The four projects include two near-shore plants, each with capacity of 300MW, and two on tidal flats with capacity of 200MW each. More public biddings will be opened in the next five years to reach a national target of 5GW by 2015(RECHARGE,July 8 2010). Also India has large coastline. Offshore Wind farms can be set up in India.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Generating electricity from the power of the wind is one of the many ways we can begin to wean North America off its reliance on dirty fuels like coal that produce massive amounts of heat-trapping greenhouse gas.
So where are the windiest places in the world that can power our lives?
NASA scientists have been creating maps using nearly a decade of data from NASA's QuikScat satellite that reveal ocean areas where winds could produce energy.
"Wind energy is environmentally friendly. After the initial energy investment to build and install wind turbines, you don't burn fossil fuels that emit carbon," said study lead author Tim Liu, a senior research scientist and QuikScat science team leader at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "Like solar power, wind energy is green energy."

Most Windy Areas in the World

Argentina experiences high winds in the Mountains and according to one estimate the Wind power potential is 500,000 MW.Argentina has one of the best regions of wind characteristics, it is The Patagonia. Its name comes from the marks that the Indian’s feet made on soil when Magallanes saw them during one stop of his travel around the world. The meteorological average wind speed in this region is from 5 to 10 m/s approximately at 10 m height .The meteorological wind power at 10m height of Patagonia is about 200,000 MW. Wind behavior is quite special in Patagonia: low average wind speed correspond to places where wind is very seasonal (spring and summer), as Comahue Region (Neuquén – Rio Negro), but with strong gusts of wind from 30 to 47 m/s.
According to Global Energy Network Research Institute," This wind map shows that the best winds in Africa are found in the north of the continent and to its extreme east, west and south. Considering that wind energy technology will continue to improve, it would be appropriate to begin any efforts to put in place a wind power deployment strategy with the African countries that have the best wind resource.
Based on the wind map and taking into account certain aspects relating to the climatological and meteorological data, 15 African countries can be identified as having the best wind resource in Africa:
Southern Africa (South Africa, Lesotho, Madagascar and Mauritius); East Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Seychelles and Somalia); North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia); West Africa (Cape Verde and Mauritania). This list will also include Chad, in central Africa, whose wind power potential derives from its topographical features".
Sri Lanka is another country which has excellent Wind Regime. "NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA) estimates that there are nearly 5000 km2 of windy areas with good-to-excellent wind resource potential in Sri Lanka after accounting for excluded lands such as national parks and reserves and archaeological and cultural sites. About 4100 km2 of the total windy area is land and about 700 km2 is lagoon. The windy land represents about 6% of the total land area (65,600 km2) of Sri Lanka. Using a conservative assumption of 5 MW per km2, this windy land could support almost 20,000 MW of potential installed capacity. If the windy lagoons are included, the total wind potential increases to approximately 24,000 MW. If areas with moderate wind resource potential are considered, the estimated total windy land area increases to approximately 10,000 km2, or almost 15% of the total land area of Sri Lanka. This amount of windy land could support more than 50,000 MW of installed capacity".
At the end of 2009, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 159.2 gigawatts (GW). Energy production was 340 TWh, which is about 2% of worldwide electricity usage; and is growing rapidly, having doubled in the past three years. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration (with large governmental subsidies), such as 20% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 14% in Portugal and Spain, 11% in Republic of Ireland, and 8% in Germany in 2009. As of May 2009, 80 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.
There are now many thousands of wind turbines operating, with a total nameplate capacity of 157,899 MW of which wind power in Europe accounts for 48% (2009). World wind generation capacity more than quadrupled between 2000 and 2006, doubling about every three years. 81% of wind power installations are in the US and Europe. The share of the top five countries in terms of new installations fell from 71% in 2004 to 62% in 2006, but climbed to 73% by 2008 as those countries — the United States, Germany, Spain, China, and India — have seen substantial capacity growth in the past two years. By 2010, the World Wind Energy Association expects 160 GW of capacity to be installed worldwide, up from 73.9 GW at the end of 2006, implying an anticipated net growth rate of more than 21% per year.
Wind accounts for nearly one-fifth of electricity generated in Denmark — the highest percentage of any country — and it is tenth in the world in total wind power generation. Denmark is prominent in the manufacturing and use of wind turbines, with a commitment made in the 1970s to eventually produce half of the country's power by wind.
In recent years, the US has added substantial amounts of wind power generation capacity, growing from just over 6 GW at the end of 2004 to over 35 GW at the end of 2009.
The U.S. is currently the world's leader in wind power generation capacity. The country as a whole generates just 2.4% of its electrical power from wind, but several states generate substantial amounts of wind power. Texas is the state with the largest amount of generation capacity with 9,410 MW installed .This would have ranked it sixth in the world if Texas was a separate country. Iowa is the state with the highest percentage of wind generation, at 14.2% in 2009. California was one of the incubators of the modern wind power industry, and led the U.S. in installed capacity for many years. As of mid-2010, fourteen U.S. states had wind power generation capacities in excess of 1000 MW. U.S. Department of Energy studies have concluded that wind from the Great Plains states of Texas, Kansas, and North Dakota could provide enough electricity to power the entire nation, and that offshore wind farms could do the same job..
China had originally set a generating target of 30,000 MW by 2020 from renewable energy sources, but reached 22,500 MW by end of 2009 and could easily surpass 30,000 MW by end of 2010. Indigenous wind power could generate up to 253,000 MW. A Chinese renewable energy law was adopted in November 2004, following the World Wind Energy Conference organized by the Chinese and the World Wind Energy Association. By 2008, wind power was growing faster in China than the government had planned, and indeed faster in percentage terms than in any other large country, having more than doubled each year since 2005. Policymakers doubled their wind power prediction for 2010, after the wind industry reached the original goal of 5 GW three years ahead of schedule. Current trends suggest an actual installed capacity near 20 GW by 2010, with China shortly thereafter pursuing the United States for the world wind power lead.

India ranks 5th in the world with a total wind power capacity of 10,925 MW in 2009, or 3% of all electricity produced in India.
Mexico recently opened La Venta II wind power project as a step toward reducing Mexico's consumption of fossil fuels. The 88 MW project is the first of its kind in Mexico, and will provide 13 percent of the electricity needs of the state of Oaxaca. By 2012 the project will have a capacity of 3,500 MW. In May 2010, Sempra Energy announced it would build a wind farm in Baja California, with a capacity of at least 1,000 MW, at a cost of $5.5 billion..
Another growing market is Brazil, with a wind potential of 143 GW.
Theoretical potential – World:
Wind power available in the atmosphere is much greater than current world energy consumption. The most comprehensive study As of 2005[95] found the potential of wind power on land and near-shore to be 72 TW, equivalent to 54,000 MToE (million tons of oil equivalent) per year, or over five times the world's current energy use in all forms. The potential takes into account only locations with mean annual wind speeds ≥ 6.9 m/s at 80 m. The study assumes six 1.5 megawatt, 77 m diameter turbines per square kilometer on roughly 13% of the total global land area (though that land would also be available for other compatible uses such as farming). The authors acknowledge that many practical barriers would need to be overcome to reach this theoretical capacity. The practical limit to exploitation of wind power will be set by economic and environmental factors, since the resource available is far larger than any practical means to develop it (Source: Wikipedia)

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


A new study by Germany's Federal Environment Agency (UBA) outlines the country's potential to achieve 100% of its energy needs from renewable sources by 2050.
Setting a serious global standard, the UBA has been looking at three main scenarios for converting to 100% renewable energy:
• A "regions network"
• International large-scale technology application
• Local energy autarky.
The current study, 100% renewable electricity supply by 2050 [German only, pdf], which focuses on a "regions network", is based on findings from the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology (IWES).
The Low Down:
According to IWES, a "regions network" scenario was studied for four seasons, where all areas of Germany largely tap into their renewable energy potential, networked in a country-wide conversion for results.
The findings: Germany would require very little imported energy from neighboring countries, and fluctuations that would occur throughout the year would be safely compensated for by renewable energy sources, storage, and efficient load management.
In other words, secure, renewable energy guaranteed at all times. If that isn't an ambitious goal, I don't know what is.
Required Changes:
2050 is still some forty years away, but as with anything change-related, you have to start early.
For the UBA, a power supply switch requires that renewable energies, networks and storage systems be expanded large-scale. Furthermore, the means to save electricity must also be used to the fullest extent.
Electricity supply, from coal fire plants, is responsible for about 40% of Germany’s total energy-related CO2 emissions. However, through Germany's Renewable Energy Act, changes are afoot.
“If we are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95%, we must switch to electricity supply from renewable energies as it is the only way to reduce the GHG emissions generated in electricity supply to zero," said Jochen Flasbarth, president of UBA.
Germany's current 5000 megawatt photovoltaic capacity is projected to reach 14000 MW this year.
The country is also the world's second-largest wind energy producer, second only to the United States, and has created over 300,000 jobs in the renewable energy sector.

100% Renewable Energy possible in Germany by 2050

With great strides in Energy Efficiency of Solar Cells,Concentrated Solar Power Systems, much improvement in Wind Turbine design and performance,Massive Utilisation of Hydrogen Energy as carrier and Fuel Cells, It should be possible for Germany to achieve 100% of its energy needs from renewable sources by 2050.There are several countries in the world which have very high wind regime like Argentina,Somalia,Sri Lanka etc., There is vast scope for setting up wind farms in Sri Lanka as the Wind is very strong in the Southeast Coast,Kalpitiya Peninsula,Mannar Island,Jaffna and Ambewela Cattle Farm experience high winds with South west Mansoon months(May to September) exceeding 9 m/s wind speeds. Of late Sri Lanka announced an attractive package to set up wind farms. Countries like India are going for a massive solar power.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


In Central London, a landmark structure called the Strata Tower (or Strata SE1, aka the Multiplex Living Tower, Castle House, Electric Razor, or “Razor”, as it’s known locally) creates enough weather of its own that architects decided at the inception of the building plan, in 2005, to add wind turbines.
The measure was described as energy conservation, but the dirty little secret behind the project is the fact that the Razor’s energy profile is 6 percent over the limits imposed on buildings by the UK Climate Change Bill, which mandates zero-carbon for new commercial buildings by 2019 (and homes by 2016).
Other energy efficiency measures include using a natural, “whole house” ventilation system (with heat recovery) instead of air-conditioning – a feasible approach given the island nation’s mild climate, which ranges from about 0ºC (32°Fahrenheit) in winter to a balmy 32ºC (89.6° Fahrenheit) in summer. (Global warming notwithstanding, the hottest temperature in the UK so far occurred on August 10, 2003, when the thermometer reached 38.5ºC, or 101ºF).
Architects also nixed the idea of putting glass on the entire building. At 143 meters (469.16 feet) tall, the Razor would have become a literal eyesore for Londoners on blindingly bright summer days (England does have a few of those). Large glass surfaces also raise internal building temperatures and promote the “heat island” effect in cities.
The 19-kilowatt wind turbines, sporting five blades instead of three to reduce noise pollution, will collectively produce up to 50 megawatts per hour (MWh) per year, or 8 percent of the building’s needs. Other efficiencies include an energy-efficient district heating system, energy-efficient lighting (including daylighting), low-e (high-performance) glass, and the reuse of 96 percent of construction waste.
At a cost of £113 million (about US$170.2 million), and containing 408 units, the building wasn’t cheap, but owners expect to recoup about £16,000-£17,000 (roughly $24,000 to $25,600) per year via new feed-in tariffs (FiTs), which became effective April 1. Unit prices range from £230,000 ($353,602 USD) to £2.5 million ($3,813,000 USD).
The turbines rely on the Venturi effect (the Bernoulli principle as applied to fluid dynamics), which increases wind velocities as a result of a building’s height, shape and adjacent terrain.
Names aside, the tower is a paradigm for the building industry, marking the first instance where appropriate renewable technology was incorporated in the design phase and directed the actual shape of the building (notice the Razor’s convex front).

Great Feat


No doubt wind energy has been exploited for centuries for water pumping, threshing and later for power generation. The power generating wind turbines have a long journey from Watts to Kilowatts and then Megawatts. Recent advances in Wind Energy have been off shore Wind farms with large Wind Turbines. Now wind turbines in the Strata Tower in Central London.
The turbines rely on the Venturi effect (the Bernoulli principle as applied to fluid dynamics), which increases wind velocities as a result of a building’s height, shape and adjacent terrain.
I designed an Innovative Savonius Wind Battery Charger with 30 degrees concentrator above and below the rotor (Vertical). It incorporates venturi effect. Since it is a vertical system, it is mobile. Also it operates in medium to low wind speeds because of Wind Concentrator. It is expected to be a boon in developing countries for battery charging for low power consumption.
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India


Not only has Spain just opened the world's largest solar power plant, but in doing so, it has also supplanted the United States as the biggest generator of solar energy on the planet.
The new La Florida solar plant is a 50-megawatt concentrating solar power farm. With its installation, Spain's solar energy capacity now stands at a world class 432-megawatts, 10-megawatts more than the U.S.
According to the Spanish solar industry, solar power is destined for even more immense growth in the next few years. The country is projected to have 2,500 MW of installed solar energy by 2013. However, we'll see if the industry is able to maintain itself with more reductions in government feed-in tariffs looming.
With an average of 340 days of sun per year, solar seems to be a pretty fail-safe investment for Spain.
Read the full story at The Guardian: Spain overtakes US with world's biggest solar power station

Solar and Wind Energy boom in Spain

SUBMITTED BY A_JAGADEESH2@YA... ON WED, 2010-07-14 23:13.
Spain started with Wind Energy as one of the forerunners with feed in laws. Now it is Solar. When Spain could do it why not Sun Belt Countries?
Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

1 comment:

  1. Thanks for sharing the useful information. It was really amazing and very informative. Keep sharing more article.
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